1RT3

AZT DRUG RESISTANT HIV-1 REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE COMPLEXED WITH 1051U91


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 3.00 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.335 
  • R-Value Work: 0.264 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.264 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.2 of the entry. See complete history


Literature

3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase can induce long range conformational changes.

Ren, J.Esnouf, R.M.Hopkins, A.L.Jones, E.Y.Kirby, I.Keeling, J.Ross, C.K.Larder, B.A.Stuart, D.I.Stammers, D.K.

(1998) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95: 9518-9523

  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.95.16.9518
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    1RT3

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) is one of the main targets for the action of anti-AIDS drugs. Many of these drugs [e.g., 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI)] are analogues of the nucleoside substrates used by the HIV RT. One of ...

    HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) is one of the main targets for the action of anti-AIDS drugs. Many of these drugs [e.g., 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI)] are analogues of the nucleoside substrates used by the HIV RT. One of the main problems in anti-HIV therapy is the selection of a mutant virus with reduced drug sensitivity. Drug resistance in HIV is generated for nucleoside analogue inhibitors by mutations in HIV RT. However, most of these mutations are situated some distance from the polymerase active site, giving rise to questions concerning the mechanism of resistance. To understand the possible structural bases for this, the crystal structures of AZT- and ddI-resistant RTs have been determined. For the ddI-resistant RT with a mutation at residue 74, no significant conformational changes were observed for the p66 subunit. In contrast, for the AZT-resistant RT (RTMC) bearing four mutations, two of these (at 215 and 219) give rise to a conformational change that propagates to the active site aspartate residues. Thus, these drug resistance mutations produce an effect at the RT polymerase site mediated simply by the protein. It is likely that such long-range effects could represent a common mechanism for generating drug resistance in other systems.


    Related Citations: 
    • Unique Features in the Structure of the Complex between HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and the Bis(Heteroaryl)Piperazine (Bhap) U-90152 Explain Resistance Mutations for This Nonnucleoside Inhibitor
      Esnouf, R.M., Ren, J., Hopkins, A.L., Ross, C.K., Jones, E.Y., Stammers, D.K., Stuart, D.I.
      (1997) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94: 3984
    • Complexes of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase with Inhibitors of the HEPT Series Reveal Conformational Changes Relevant to the Design of Potent Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors
      Hopkins, A.L., Ren, J., Esnouf, R.M., Willcox, B.E., Jones, E.Y., Ross, C., Miyasaka, T., Walker, R.T., Tanaka, H., Stammers, D.K., Stuart, D.I.
      (1996) J Med Chem 39: 1589
    • The Structure of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Complexed with 9-Chloro-TIBO: Lessons for Inhibitor Design
      Ren, J., Esnouf, R., Hopkins, A., Ross, C., Jones, Y., Stammers, D., Stuart, D.
      (1995) Structure 3: 915
    • High Resolution Structures of HIV-1 RT from Four RT-Inhibitor Complexes
      Ren, J., Esnouf, R., Garman, E., Somers, D., Ross, C., Kirby, I., Keeling, J., Darby, G., Jones, Y., Stuart, D., Stammers, D.
      (1995) Nat Struct Biol 2: 293
    • Mechanism of Inhibition of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase by Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors
      Esnouf, R., Ren, J., Ross, C., Jones, Y., Stammers, D., Stuart, D.
      (1995) Nat Struct Biol 2: 303
    • Crystals of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Diffracting to 2.2 A Resolution
      Stammers, D.K., Somers, D.O., Ross, C.K., Kirby, I., Ray, P.H., Wilson, J.E., Norman, M., Ren, J.S., Esnouf, R.M., Garman, E.F., Jones, E.Y., Stuart, D.I.
      (1994) J Mol Biol 242: 586

    Organizational Affiliation

    Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Rex Richards Building, South Parks Road, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QU, United Kingdom.



Macromolecules
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
HIV-1 REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE A560Human immunodeficiency virus 1Mutation(s): 5 
Gene Names: POL
EC: 2.7.7.49 (PDB Primary Data), 3.4.23.16 (UniProt), 2.7.7.7 (UniProt), 3.1.26.13 (UniProt), 3.1.13.2 (UniProt), 2.7.7 (UniProt), 3.1 (UniProt)
Find proteins for P04585 (Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate HXB2))
Explore P04585 
Go to UniProtKB:  P04585
Protein Feature View
Expand
  • Reference Sequence
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
HIV-1 REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE B440Human immunodeficiency virus 1Mutation(s): 2 
Gene Names: POL
EC: 2.7.7.49 (PDB Primary Data), 3.4.23.16 (UniProt), 2.7.7.7 (UniProt), 3.1.26.13 (UniProt), 3.1.13.2 (UniProt), 2.7.7 (UniProt), 3.1 (UniProt)
Find proteins for P04585 (Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate HXB2))
Explore P04585 
Go to UniProtKB:  P04585
Protein Feature View
Expand
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
U05
Query on U05

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
A
6,11-DIHYDRO-11-ETHYL-6-METHYL-9-NITRO-5H-PYRIDO[2,3-B][1,5]BENZODIAZEPIN-5-ONE
C15 H14 N4 O3
YCFJZPGDTZVVSM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Modified Residues  1 Unique
IDChainsTypeFormula2D DiagramParent
CSD
Query on CSD
AL-PEPTIDE LINKINGC3 H7 N O4 SCYS
External Ligand Annotations 
IDBinding Affinity (Sequence Identity %)
U05IC50:  400   nM  BindingDB
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 3.00 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.335 
  • R-Value Work: 0.264 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.264 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 21
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 138.9α = 90
b = 114.4β = 90
c = 65.6γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
X-PLORmodel building
X-PLORrefinement
DENZOdata reduction
SCALEPACKdata scaling
X-PLORphasing

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 1999-02-16
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-03-24
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance