Two Cross-Protective Antigen Sites on Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O Structurally Revealed by Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies from Cattle.Li, K., He, Y., Wang, L., Li, P., Wang, S., Sun, P., Bao, H., Cao, Y., Liu, X., Zhu, G., Song, Y., Bai, X., Ma, X., Fu, Y., Yuan, H., Zhang, J., Wang, J., Chen, Y., Li, D., Lou, Z., Liu, Z., Lu, Z.
(2021) J Virol 95: e0088121-e0088121
- PubMed: 34406868
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00881-21
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious virus that infects cloven-hoofed animals. Neutralizing antibodies play critical roles in antiviral infection. Although five known antigen sites that induce neutralizing antibodies have been defined, studies on cross-protective antigen sites are still scarce ...
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious virus that infects cloven-hoofed animals. Neutralizing antibodies play critical roles in antiviral infection. Although five known antigen sites that induce neutralizing antibodies have been defined, studies on cross-protective antigen sites are still scarce. We mapped two cross-protective antigen sites using 13 bovine-derived broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnAbs) capable of neutralizing 4 lineages within 3 topotypes of FMDV serotype O. One antigen site was formed by a novel cluster of VP3-focused epitopes recognized by bnAb C4 and C4-like antibodies. The cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the FMDV-OTi (O/Tibet/99)-C4 complex showed close contact with VP3 and a novel interprotomer antigen epitope around the icosahedral 3-fold axis of the FMDV particle, which is far beyond the known antigen site 4. The key determinants of the neutralizing function of C4 and C4-like antibodies on the capsid were βB (T65), the B-C loop (T68), the E-F loop (E131 and K134), and the H-I loop (G196), revealing a novel antigen site on VP3. The other antigen site comprised two group epitopes on VP2 recognized by 9 bnAbs (B57, B73, B77, B82, F28, F145, F150, E46, and E54), which belong to the known antigen site 2 of FMDV serotype O. Notably, bnAb C4 potently promoted FMDV RNA release in response to damage to viral particles, suggesting that the targeted epitope contains a trigger mechanism for particle disassembly. This study revealed two cross-protective antigen sites that can elicit cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies in cattle and provided new structural information for the design of a broad-spectrum molecular vaccine against FMDV serotype O. IMPORTANCE FMDV is the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is one of the most contagious and economically devastating diseases of domestic animals. The antigenic structure of FMDV serotype O is rather complicated, especially for those sites that can elicit a cross-protective neutralizing antibody response. Monoclonal neutralization antibodies provide both crucial defense components against FMDV infection and valuable tools for fine analysis of the antigenic structure. In this study, we found a cluster of novel VP3-focused epitopes using 13 bnAbs against FMDV serotype O from natural host cattle, which revealed two cross-protective antigen sites on VP2 and VP3. Antibody C4 targeting this novel epitope potently promoted viral particle disassembly and RNA release before infection, which may indicate a vulnerable region of FMDV. This study reveals new structural information about cross-protective antigen sites of FMDV serotype O, providing valuable and strong support for future research on broad-spectrum vaccines against FMD.
State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-Mouth Diseases Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.