Structural basis for selectivity in flavin-dependent monooxygenase-catalyzed oxidative dearomatization.Rodriguez Benitez, A., Tweedy, S.E., Baker Dockrey, S.A., Lukowski, A.L., Wymore, T., Khare, D., Brooks 3rd, C.L., Palfey, B.A., Smith, J.L., Narayan, A.R.H.
(2019) ACS Catal 9: 3633-3640
- PubMed: 31346489
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.8b04575
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
6NES, 6NET, 6NEU, 6NEV
- PubMed Abstract:
Biocatalytic reactions embody many features of ideal chemical transformations, including the potential for impeccable selectivity, high catalytic efficiency, mild reaction conditions and the use of environmentally benign reagents. These advantages have created a demand for biocatalysts that expand the portfolio of complexity-generating reactions available to synthetic chemists. However, the tradeoff that often exists between the substrate scope of a biocatalyst and its selectivity limits the application of enzymes in synthesis. We recently demonstrated that a flavin-dependent monooxygenase, TropB, maintains high levels of site- and stereoselectivity across a range of structurally diverse substrates. Herein, we disclose the structural basis for substrate binding in TropB, which performs a synthetically challenging asymmetric oxidative dearomatization reaction with exquisite site- and stereoselectivity across a range of phenol substrates, providing a foundation for future protein engineering and reaction development efforts. Our hypothesis for substrate binding is informed by a crystal structure of TropB and molecular dynamics simulations with the corresponding computational TropB model and is supported by experimental data. In contrast to canonical class A FAD-dependent monooxygenases in which substrates bind in a protonated form, our data indicate that the phenolate form of the substrate binds in the active site. Furthermore, the substrate position is controlled through twopoint binding of the phenolate oxygen to Arg206 and Tyr239, which are shown to have distinct and essential roles in catalysis. Arg206 is involved in the reduction of the flavin cofactor, suggesting a role in flavin dynamics. Further, QM/MM simulations reveal the interactions that govern the facial selectivity that leads to a highly enantioselective transformation. Thus, the structural origins of the high levels of site-and stereoselectivity observed in reactions of TropB across a range of substrates are elucidated, providing a foundation for future protein engineering and reaction development efforts.
Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109.