Interspecies Variation between Fish and Human Transthyretins in Their Binding of Thyroid-Disrupting Chemicals.Zhang, J., Grundstrom, C., Brannstrom, K., Iakovleva, I., Lindberg, M., Olofsson, A., Andersson, P.L., Sauer-Eriksson, A.E.
(2018) Environ Sci Technol 52: 11865-11874
- PubMed: 30226982
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b03581
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
6GNM, 6GNO, 6GNP, 6GNR, 6GNW, 6GON, 6GOO, 6GR7, 6GRP
- PubMed Abstract:
Thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are xenobiotics that can interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse effects in organisms and their offspring. TDCs affect both the thyroid gland and regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone homeostasis. Transthyretin (TTR) is found in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of vertebrates, where it transports thyroid hormones. Here, we explored the interspecies variation in TDC binding to human and fish TTR (exemplified by Gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata)). The in vitro binding experiments showed that TDCs bind with equal or weaker affinity to seabream TTR than to the human TTR, in particular, the polar TDCs (>500-fold lower affinity). Crystal structures of the seabream TTR-TDC complexes revealed that all TDCs bound at the thyroid binding sites. However, amino acid substitution of Ser117 in human TTR to Thr117 in seabream prevented polar TDCs from binding deep in the hormone binding cavity, which explains their low affinity to seabream TTR. Molecular dynamics and in silico alanine scanning simulation also suggested that the protein backbone of seabream TTR is more rigid than the human one and that Thr117 provides fewer electrostatic contributions than Ser117 to ligand binding. This provides an explanation for the weaker affinities of the ligands that rely on electrostatic interactions with Thr117. The lower affinities of TDCs to fish TTR, in particular the polar ones, could potentially lead to milder thyroid-related effects in fish.