Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 1.50 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.203 
  • R-Value Work: 0.184 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.185 

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Drugging an undruggable pocket on KRAS.

Kessler, D.Gmachl, M.Mantoulidis, A.Martin, L.J.Zoephel, A.Mayer, M.Gollner, A.Covini, D.Fischer, S.Gerstberger, T.Gmaschitz, T.Goodwin, C.Greb, P.Haring, D.Hela, W.Hoffmann, J.Karolyi-Oezguer, J.Knesl, P.Kornigg, S.Koegl, M.Kousek, R.Lamarre, L.Moser, F.Munico-Martinez, S.Peinsipp, C.Phan, J.Rinnenthal, J.Sai, J.Salamon, C.Scherbantin, Y.Schipany, K.Schnitzer, R.Schrenk, A.Sharps, B.Siszler, G.Sun, Q.Waterson, A.Wolkerstorfer, B.Zeeb, M.Pearson, M.Fesik, S.W.McConnell, D.B.

(2019) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 116: 15823-15829

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1904529116
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    6GJ5, 6GJ6, 6GJ7, 6GJ8

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    The 3 human RAS genes, KRAS, NRAS, and HRAS, encode 4 different RAS proteins which belong to the protein family of small GTPases that function as binary molecular switches involved in cell signaling. Activating mutations in RAS are among the most common oncogenic drivers in human cancers, with KRAS being the most frequently mutated oncogene. Although KRAS is an excellent drug discovery target for many cancers, and despite decades of research, no therapeutic agent directly targeting RAS has been clinically approved. Using structure-based drug design, we have discovered BI-2852 (1), a KRAS inhibitor that binds with nanomolar affinity to a pocket, thus far perceived to be "undruggable," between switch I and II on RAS; 1 is mechanistically distinct from covalent KRAS G12C inhibitors because it binds to a different pocket present in both the active and inactive forms of KRAS. In doing so, it blocks all GEF, GAP, and effector interactions with KRAS, leading to inhibition of downstream signaling and an antiproliferative effect in the low micromolar range in KRAS mutant cells. These findings clearly demonstrate that this so-called switch I/II pocket is indeed druggable and provide the scientific community with a chemical probe that simultaneously targets the active and inactive forms of KRAS.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37235.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
GTPase KRas
A, B
170Homo sapiensMutation(s): 2 
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P01116 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P01116 
Go to UniProtKB:  P01116
PHAROS:  P01116
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP01116
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 1.50 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.203 
  • R-Value Work: 0.184 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.185 
  • Space Group: P 1 21 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 42.074α = 90
b = 40.043β = 101.14
c = 94.284γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
HKL-2000data reduction
SCALEPACKdata scaling

Structure Validation

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 

Entry History & Funding Information

Deposition Data

Funding OrganizationLocationGrant Number
National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute (NIH/NCI)United StatesP50A095103
Austrian Science FundAustria854341

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2019-07-31
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2019-08-07
    Changes: Data collection, Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2019-08-14
    Changes: Data collection, Database references
  • Version 1.3: 2022-03-30
    Changes: Author supporting evidence, Database references, Derived calculations