5TUS

Potent competitive inhibition of human ribonucleotide reductase by a novel non-nucleoside small molecule


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.66 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.250 
  • R-Value Work: 0.199 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


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Literature

Potent competitive inhibition of human ribonucleotide reductase by a nonnucleoside small molecule.

Ahmad, M.F.Alam, I.Huff, S.E.Pink, J.Flanagan, S.A.Shewach, D.Misko, T.A.Oleinick, N.L.Harte, W.E.Viswanathan, R.Harris, M.E.Dealwis, C.G.

(2017) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114: 8241-8246

  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620220114

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Human ribonucleotide reductase (hRR) is crucial for DNA replication and maintenance of a balanced dNTP pool, and is an established cancer target. Nucleoside analogs such as gemcitabine diphosphate and clofarabine nucleotides target the large subunit ...

    Human ribonucleotide reductase (hRR) is crucial for DNA replication and maintenance of a balanced dNTP pool, and is an established cancer target. Nucleoside analogs such as gemcitabine diphosphate and clofarabine nucleotides target the large subunit (hRRM1) of hRR. These drugs have a poor therapeutic index due to toxicity caused by additional effects, including DNA chain termination. The discovery of nonnucleoside, reversible, small-molecule inhibitors with greater specificity against hRRM1 is a key step in the development of more effective treatments for cancer. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a unique nonnucleoside small-molecule hRR inhibitor, naphthyl salicylic acyl hydrazone (NSAH), using virtual screening, binding affinity, inhibition, and cell toxicity assays. NSAH binds to hRRM1 with an apparent dissociation constant of 37 µM, and steady-state kinetics reveal a competitive mode of inhibition. A 2.66-Å resolution crystal structure of NSAH in complex with hRRM1 demonstrates that NSAH functions by binding at the catalytic site (C-site) where it makes both common and unique contacts with the enzyme compared with NDP substrates. Importantly, the IC 50 for NSAH is within twofold of gemcitabine for growth inhibition of multiple cancer cell lines, while demonstrating little cytotoxicity against normal mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells. NSAH depresses dGTP and dATP levels in the dNTP pool causing S-phase arrest, providing evidence for RR inhibition in cells. This report of a nonnucleoside reversible inhibitor binding at the catalytic site of hRRM1 provides a starting point for the design of a unique class of hRR inhibitors.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106.,Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106.,Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106.,Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.,Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106; cxd114@case.edu.,Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106.,Center for Proteomics and the Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106.,Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit
A, B
792Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: RRM1 (RR1)
EC: 1.17.4.1
Find proteins for P23921 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: RRM1
Go to UniProtKB:  P23921
Small Molecules
Ligands 3 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
TTP
Query on TTP

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Download CCD File 
A, B
THYMIDINE-5'-TRIPHOSPHATE
C10 H17 N2 O14 P3
NHVNXKFIZYSCEB-XLPZGREQSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
MG
Query on MG

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Download CCD File 
A, B
MAGNESIUM ION
Mg
JLVVSXFLKOJNIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
7LL
Query on 7LL

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Download CCD File 
B
2-hydroxy-N'-[(Z)-(2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylidene]benzohydrazide
C18 H14 N2 O3
ZZSJOLDICPVVAV-ODLFYWEKSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.66 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.250 
  • R-Value Work: 0.199 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 21
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 69.516α = 90.00
b = 114.282β = 90.00
c = 220.361γ = 90.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
SCALEPACKdata scaling
REFMACrefinement
MOLREPphasing
HKL-2000data reduction

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History & Funding Information

Deposition Data


Funding OrganizationLocationGrant Number
National Institutes of Health/National Institute of General Medical SciencesUnited StatesR01GM100887

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2017-08-02
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2017-08-16
    Type: Database references