Phosphoantigen-induced conformational change of butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1) and its implication on V gamma 9V delta 2 T cell activation.Gu, S., Sachleben, J.R., Boughter, C.T., Nawrocka, W.I., Borowska, M.T., Tarrasch, J.T., Skiniotis, G., Roux, B., Adams, E.J.
(2017) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114: E7311-E7320
- PubMed: 28807997
- DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707547114
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells respond to microbial infections as well as certain types of tumors. The key initiators of Vγ9Vδ2 activation are small, pyrophosphate-containing molecules called phosphoantigens (pAgs) that are present in infected cells or accumulate intracellularly in certain tumor cells ...
Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells respond to microbial infections as well as certain types of tumors. The key initiators of Vγ9Vδ2 activation are small, pyrophosphate-containing molecules called phosphoantigens (pAgs) that are present in infected cells or accumulate intracellularly in certain tumor cells. Recent studies demonstrate that initiation of the Vγ9Vδ2 T cell response begins with sensing of pAg via the intracellular domain of the butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1) molecule. However, it is unknown how downstream events can ultimately lead to T cell activation. Here, using NMR spectrometry and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we characterize a global conformational change in the B30.2 intracellular domain of BTN3A1 induced by pAg binding. We also reveal by crystallography two distinct dimer interfaces in the BTN3A1 full-length intracellular domain, which are stable in MD simulations. These interfaces lie in close proximity to the pAg-binding pocket and contain clusters of residues that experience major changes of chemical environment upon pAg binding. This suggests that pAg binding disrupts a preexisting conformation of the BTN3A1 intracellular domain. Using a combination of biochemical, structural, and cellular approaches we demonstrate that the extracellular domains of BTN3A1 adopt a V-shaped conformation at rest, and that locking them in this resting conformation without perturbing their membrane reorganization properties diminishes pAg-induced T cell activation. Based on these results, we propose a model in which a conformational change in BTN3A1 is a key event of pAg sensing that ultimately leads to T cell activation.
Committee on Cancer Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637.