The Mg2+-containing Water Cluster of Mammalian Cytochrome c Oxidase Collects Four Pumping Proton Equivalents in Each Catalytic Cycle.Yano, N., Muramoto, K., Shimada, A., Takemura, S., Baba, J., Fujisawa, H., Mochizuki, M., Shinzawa-Itoh, K., Yamashita, E., Tsukihara, T., Yoshikawa, S.
(2016) J Biol Chem 291: 23882-23894
- PubMed: 27605664
- DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M115.711770
- Structures With Same Primary Citation
- PubMed Abstract:
Bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) pumps four proton equivalents per catalytic cycle through the H-pathway, a proton-conducting pathway, which includes a hydrogen bond network and a water channel operating in tandem. Protons are transferred by H ...
Bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) pumps four proton equivalents per catalytic cycle through the H-pathway, a proton-conducting pathway, which includes a hydrogen bond network and a water channel operating in tandem. Protons are transferred by H 3 O + through the water channel from the N-side into the hydrogen bond network, where they are pumped to the P-side by electrostatic repulsion between protons and net positive charges created at heme a as a result of electron donation to O 2 bound to heme a 3 To block backward proton movement, the water channel remains closed after O 2 binding until the sequential four-proton pumping process is complete. Thus, the hydrogen bond network must collect four proton equivalents before O 2 binding. However, a region with the capacity to accept four proton equivalents was not discernable in the x-ray structures of the hydrogen bond network. The present x-ray structures of oxidized/reduced bovine CcO are improved from 1.8/1.9 to 1.5/1.6 Å resolution, increasing the structural information by 1.7/1.6 times and revealing that a large water cluster, which includes a Mg 2+ ion, is linked to the H-pathway. The cluster contains enough proton acceptor groups to retain four proton equivalents. The redox-coupled x-ray structural changes in Glu 198 , which bridges the Mg 2+ and Cu A (the initial electron acceptor from cytochrome c) sites, suggest that the Cu A -Glu 198 -Mg 2+ system drives redox-coupled transfer of protons pooled in the water cluster to the H-pathway. Thus, these x-ray structures indicate that the Mg 2+ -containing water cluster is the crucial structural element providing the effective proton pumping in bovine CcO.
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