B-Raf Kinase V600E oncogenic mutant in complex with Dabrafenib

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.50 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.244 
  • R-Value Work: 0.212 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.213 

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RAF inhibitors that evade paradoxical MAPK pathway activation.

Zhang, C.Spevak, W.Zhang, Y.Burton, E.A.Ma, Y.Habets, G.Zhang, J.Lin, J.Ewing, T.Matusow, B.Tsang, G.Marimuthu, A.Cho, H.Wu, G.Wang, W.Fong, D.Nguyen, H.Shi, S.Womack, P.Nespi, M.Shellooe, R.Carias, H.Powell, B.Light, E.Sanftner, L.Walters, J.Tsai, J.West, B.L.Visor, G.Rezaei, H.Lin, P.S.Nolop, K.Ibrahim, P.N.Hirth, P.Bollag, G.

(2015) Nature 526: 583-586

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14982
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    4XV1, 4XV2, 4XV3, 4XV9

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Oncogenic activation of BRAF fuels cancer growth by constitutively promoting RAS-independent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signalling. Accordingly, RAF inhibitors have brought substantially improved personalized treatment of metastatic melanoma. However, these targeted agents have also revealed an unexpected consequence: stimulated growth of certain cancers. Structurally diverse ATP-competitive RAF inhibitors can either inhibit or paradoxically activate the MAPK pathway, depending whether activation is by BRAF mutation or by an upstream event, such as RAS mutation or receptor tyrosine kinase activation. Here we have identified next-generation RAF inhibitors (dubbed 'paradox breakers') that suppress mutant BRAF cells without activating the MAPK pathway in cells bearing upstream activation. In cells that express the same HRAS mutation prevalent in squamous tumours from patients treated with RAF inhibitors, the first-generation RAF inhibitor vemurafenib stimulated in vitro and in vivo growth and induced expression of MAPK pathway response genes; by contrast the paradox breakers PLX7904 and PLX8394 had no effect. Paradox breakers also overcame several known mechanisms of resistance to first-generation RAF inhibitors. Dissociating MAPK pathway inhibition from paradoxical activation might yield both improved safety and more durable efficacy than first-generation RAF inhibitors, a concept currently undergoing human clinical evaluation with PLX8394.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Plexxikon Inc., 91 Bolivar Drive, Berkeley, California 94710, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf
A, B
292Homo sapiensMutation(s): 12 
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P15056 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P15056 
Go to UniProtKB:  P15056
GTEx:  ENSG00000157764 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP15056
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Binding Affinity Annotations 
IDSourceBinding Affinity
P06 BindingDB:  4XV2 IC50: min: 0.4, max: 11 (nM) from 11 assay(s)
EC50: 529 (nM) from 1 assay(s)
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.50 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.244 
  • R-Value Work: 0.212 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.213 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 21
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 53.689α = 90
b = 105.666β = 90
c = 109.731γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
MOSFLMdata reduction
SCALAdata scaling

Structure Validation

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 

Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2015-10-28
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2015-11-04
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2024-02-28
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations