High-resolution crystal structure of water-soluble FraC (mutation F16P)

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 1.29 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.151 
  • R-Value Work: 0.119 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.120 

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This is version 1.4 of the entry. See complete history


A Pore-Forming Toxin Requires a Specific Residue for Its Activity in Membranes with Particular Physicochemical Properties

Morante, K.Caaveiro, J.M.Tanaka, K.Gonzalez-Manas, J.M.Tsumoto, K.

(2015) J Biol Chem 290: 10850-10861

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.615211
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    The physicochemical landscape of the bilayer modulates membrane protein function. Actinoporins are a family of potent hemolytic proteins from sea anemones acting at the membrane level. This family of cytolysins preferentially binds to target membranes containing sphingomyelin, where they form lytic pores giving rise to cell death. Although the cytolytic activity of the actinoporin fragaceatoxin C (FraC) is sensitive to vesicles made of various lipid compositions, it is far from clear how this toxin adjusts its mechanism of action to a broad range of physiochemical landscapes. Herein, we show that the conserved residue Phe-16 of FraC is critical for pore formation in cholesterol-rich membranes such as those of red blood cells. The interaction of a panel of muteins of Phe-16 with model membranes composed of raft-like lipid domains is inactivated in cholesterol-rich membranes but not in cholesterol-depleted membranes. These results indicate that actinoporins recognize different membrane environments, resulting in a wider repertoire of susceptible target membranes (and preys) for sea anemones. In addition, this study has unveiled promising candidates for the development of protein-based biosensors highly sensitive to the concentration of cholesterol within the membrane.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    From the Department of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering and the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of the Basque Country, 48940 Leioa, Spain, and.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Fragaceatoxin C179Actinia fragaceaMutation(s): 1 
Find proteins for B9W5G6 (Actinia fragacea)
Explore B9W5G6 
Go to UniProtKB:  B9W5G6
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupB9W5G6
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 1.29 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.151 
  • R-Value Work: 0.119 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.120 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 21
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 42.83α = 90
b = 61.48β = 90
c = 66.81γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2015-03-18
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2015-04-08
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2015-05-06
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.3: 2020-01-29
    Changes: Advisory, Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations, Other, Source and taxonomy, Structure summary
  • Version 1.4: 2024-03-20
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Refinement description