4UNM

Structure of Galactose Oxidase homologue from Streptomyces lividans


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.77 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.228 
  • R-Value Work: 0.188 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.190 

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This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history


Literature

Glxa is a New Structural Member of the Radical Copper Oxidase Family and is Required for Glycan Deposition at Hyphal Tips and Morphogenesis of Streptomyces Lividans.

Chaplin, A.K.Petrus, M.L.Mangiameli, G.Hough, M.A.Svistunenko, D.A.Nicholls, P.Claessen, D.Vijgenboom, E.Worrall, J.A.

(2015) Biochem J 469: 433

  • DOI: 10.1042/BJ20150190
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    4UNM

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Streptomyces lividans displays a distinct dependence on copper to fully initiate morphological development. Evidence has accumulated to implicate the participation of an extracytoplasmic cuproenzyme in morphogenesis. In the present study, we show that GlxA fulfils all criteria to be that cuproenzyme ...

    Streptomyces lividans displays a distinct dependence on copper to fully initiate morphological development. Evidence has accumulated to implicate the participation of an extracytoplasmic cuproenzyme in morphogenesis. In the present study, we show that GlxA fulfils all criteria to be that cuproenzyme. GlxA is membrane associated and has an active site consisting of a mononuclear copper and a cross-linked Y-C cofactor. The domain organization of the tertiary structure defines GlxA as a new structural member of the mono-copper oxidase family, with copper co-ordination geometry similar to, but spectroscopically distinct from fungal galactose oxidase (Gox). EPR spectroscopy reveals that the oxidation of cupric GlxA generates a protein radical residing on the Y-C cross-link. A variety of canonical Gox substrates (including D-galactose) were tested but none were readily turned over by GlxA. A glxA null-mutant leads to loss of glycan accumulation at hyphal tips and consequently a drastically changed morphology both on solid substrates and in liquid-grown environments, a scenario similarly observed in the absence of the neighbouring glycan synthase CslA (cellulase synthase-like protein). In addition the glxA mutant has lost the stimulation of development by copper, supporting a model whereby the enzymatic action of GlxA on the glycan is required for development and morphology. From a biotechnology perspective, the open mycelium morphology observed with the glxA mutant in submerged culture has implications for use as an enzyme production host.


    Organizational Affiliation

    School of Biological Science, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, CO4 3SQ, U.K. jworrall@essex.ac.uk vijgenbo@biology.leidenuniv.nl.



Macromolecules
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
SECRETED PROTEINA, B615Streptomyces lividansMutation(s): 0 
Find proteins for D6EWM0 (Streptomyces lividans TK24)
Explore D6EWM0 
Go to UniProtKB:  D6EWM0
Protein Feature View
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  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.77 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.228 
  • R-Value Work: 0.188 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.190 
  • Space Group: P 1 21 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 50.36α = 90
b = 126.63β = 91.1
c = 107.55γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
REFMACrefinement
MOSFLMdata reduction
Aimlessdata scaling
MOLREPphasing

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2015-06-10
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2015-08-05
    Changes: Database references