Kinetic and Structural Mechanisms of (5'S)-8,5'-Cyclo-2'-deoxyguanosine-Induced DNA Replication Stalling.Xu, W., Ouellette, A.M., Wawrzak, Z., Shriver, S.J., Anderson, S.M., Zhao, L.
(2015) Biochemistry 54: 639-651
- PubMed: 25569151
- DOI: 10.1021/bi5014936
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
The (5'S)-8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyguanosine (S-cdG) lesion is produced from reactions of DNA with hydroxyl radicals generated from ionizing radiation or endogenous oxidative metabolisms. An elevated level of S-cdG has been detected in Xeroderma pigmentosu ...
The (5'S)-8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyguanosine (S-cdG) lesion is produced from reactions of DNA with hydroxyl radicals generated from ionizing radiation or endogenous oxidative metabolisms. An elevated level of S-cdG has been detected in Xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome, breast cancer patients, and aged mice. S-dG blocks DNA replication and transcription in vitro and in human cells and produces mutant replication and transcription products in vitro and in vivo. Major cellular protection against S-dG includes nucleotide excision repair and translesion DNA synthesis. We used kinetic and crystallographic approaches to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of S-cdG-induced DNA replication stalling using model B-family Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase B1 (Dpo1) and Y-family S. solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4). Dpo1 and Dpo4 inefficiently bypassed S-cdG with dCTP preferably incorporated and dTTP (for Dpo4) or dATP (for Dpo1) misincorporated. Pre-steady-state kinetics and crystallographic data mechanistically explained the low-efficiency bypass. For Dpo1, S-cdG attenuated Kd,dNTP,app and kpol. For Dpo4, the S-cdG-adducted duplex caused a 6-fold decrease in Dpo4:DNA binding affinity and significantly reduced the concentration of the productive Dpo4:DNA:dCTP complex. Consistent with the inefficient bypass, crystal structures of Dpo4:DNA(S-cdG):dCTP (error-free) and Dpo4:DNA(S-cdG):dTTP (error-prone) complexes were catalytically incompetent. In the Dpo4:DNA(S-cdG):dTTP structure, S-cdG induced a loop structure and caused an unusual 5'-template base clustering at the active site, providing the first structural evidence of the previously suggested template loop structure that can be induced by a cyclopurine lesion. Together, our results provided mechanistic insights into S-cdG-induced DNA replication stalling.
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and ‡Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University , Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48859, United States.