Bioretrosynthetic construction of a didanosine biosynthetic pathway.Birmingham, W.R., Starbird, C.A., Panosian, T.D., Nannemann, D.P., Iverson, T.M., Bachmann, B.O.
(2014) Nat Chem Biol 10: 392-399
- PubMed: 24657930
- DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.1494
- Structures With Same Primary Citation
- PubMed Abstract:
Concatenation of engineered biocatalysts into multistep pathways markedly increases their utility, but the development of generalizable assembly methods remains a major challenge. Herein we evaluate 'bioretrosynthesis', which is an application of the ...
Concatenation of engineered biocatalysts into multistep pathways markedly increases their utility, but the development of generalizable assembly methods remains a major challenge. Herein we evaluate 'bioretrosynthesis', which is an application of the retrograde evolution hypothesis, for biosynthetic pathway construction. To test bioretrosynthesis, we engineered a pathway for synthesis of the antiretroviral nucleoside analog didanosine (2',3'-dideoxyinosine). Applying both directed evolution- and structure-based approaches, we began pathway construction with a retro-extension from an engineered purine nucleoside phosphorylase and evolved 1,5-phosphopentomutase to accept the substrate 2,3-dideoxyribose 5-phosphate with a 700-fold change in substrate selectivity and threefold increased turnover in cell lysate. A subsequent retrograde pathway extension, via ribokinase engineering, resulted in a didanosine pathway with a 9,500-fold change in nucleoside production selectivity and 50-fold increase in didanosine production. Unexpectedly, the result of this bioretrosynthetic step was not a retro-extension from phosphopentomutase but rather the discovery of a fortuitous pathway-shortening bypass via the engineered ribokinase.
1] Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.  Department of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.