3ZRG

Crystal structure of RxLR effector PexRD2 from Phytophthora infestans


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.75 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.245 
  • R-Value Work: 0.189 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.192 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history


Literature

Structures of Phytophthora Rxlr Effector Proteins: A Conserved But Adaptable Fold Underpins Functional Diversity.

Boutemy, L.S.King, S.R.F.Win, J.Hughes, R.K.Clarke, T.A.Blumenschein, T.M.A.Kamoun, S.Banfield, M.J.

(2011) J Biol Chem 286: 35834

  • DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.262303
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    3ZR8, 3ZRG

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Phytopathogens deliver effector proteins inside host plant cells to promote infection. These proteins can also be sensed by the plant immune system, leading to restriction of pathogen growth. Effector genes can display signatures of positive selection and rapid evolution, presumably a consequence of their co-evolutionary arms race with plants ...

    Phytopathogens deliver effector proteins inside host plant cells to promote infection. These proteins can also be sensed by the plant immune system, leading to restriction of pathogen growth. Effector genes can display signatures of positive selection and rapid evolution, presumably a consequence of their co-evolutionary arms race with plants. The molecular mechanisms underlying how effectors evolve to gain new virulence functions and/or evade the plant immune system are poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structures of the effector domains from two oomycete RXLR proteins, Phytophthora capsici AVR3a11 and Phytophthora infestans PexRD2. Despite sharing <20% sequence identity in their effector domains, they display a conserved core α-helical fold. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that the core fold occurs in ∼44% of annotated Phytophthora RXLR effectors, both as a single domain and in tandem repeats of up to 11 units. Functionally important and polymorphic residues map to the surface of the structures, and PexRD2, but not AVR3a11, oligomerizes in planta. We conclude that the core α-helical fold enables functional adaptation of these fast evolving effectors through (i) insertion/deletions in loop regions between α-helices, (ii) extensions to the N and C termini, (iii) amino acid replacements in surface residues, (iv) tandem domain duplications, and (v) oligomerization. We hypothesize that the molecular stability provided by this core fold, combined with considerable potential for plasticity, underlies the evolution of effectors that maintain their virulence activities while evading recognition by the plant immune system.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Biological Chemistry, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom. Electronic address: mark.banfield@jic.ac.uk.



Macromolecules
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
PEXRD2 FAMILY SECRETED RXLR EFFECTOR PEPTIDE, PUTATIVEA, B67Phytophthora infestansMutation(s): 0 
UniProt
Find proteins for D0NIN5 (Phytophthora infestans (strain T30-4))
Explore D0NIN5 
Go to UniProtKB:  D0NIN5
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupD0NIN5
Protein Feature View
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  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.75 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.245 
  • R-Value Work: 0.189 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.192 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 21
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 44.45α = 90
b = 52.92β = 90
c = 53.73γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
REFMACrefinement
iMOSFLMdata reduction
SCALAdata scaling

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2011-08-03
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-10-19
    Changes: Database references