The biological activity of botulinum neurotoxin type C is dependent upon novel types of ganglioside binding sites.Strotmeier, J., Gu, S., Jutzi, S., Mahrhold, S., Zhou, J., Pich, A., Eichner, T., Bigalke, H., Rummel, A., Jin, R., Binz, T.
(2011) Mol Microbiol 81: 143-156
- PubMed: 21542861
- DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07682.x
- Structures With Same Primary Citation
- PubMed Abstract:
The seven botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) cause muscle paralysis by selectively cleaving core components of the vesicular fusion machinery. Their extraordinary activity primarily relies on highly specific entry into neurons. Data on BoNT/A, B, E, F and ...
The seven botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) cause muscle paralysis by selectively cleaving core components of the vesicular fusion machinery. Their extraordinary activity primarily relies on highly specific entry into neurons. Data on BoNT/A, B, E, F and G suggest that entry follows a dual receptor interaction with complex gangliosides via an established ganglioside binding region and a synaptic vesicle protein. Here, we report high resolution crystal structures of the BoNT/C cell binding fragment alone and in complex with sialic acid. The WY-motif characteristic of the established ganglioside binding region was located on an exposed loop. Sialic acid was co-ordinated at a novel position neighbouring the binding pocket for synaptotagmin in BoNT/B and G and the sialic acid binding site in BoNT/D and TeNT respectively. Employing synaptosomes and immobilized gangliosides binding studies with BoNT/C mutants showed that the ganglioside binding WY-loop, the newly identified sialic acid-co-ordinating pocket and the area corresponding to the established ganglioside binding region of other BoNTs are involved in ganglioside interaction. Phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm activity tests employing ganglioside deficient mice furthermore evidenced that the biological activity of BoNT/C depends on ganglioside interaction with at least two binding sites. These data suggest a unique cell binding and entry mechanism for BoNT/C among clostridial neurotoxins.
Institut für Toxikologie, OE 5340 Institut für Biochemie, OE 4310, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Str 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany.