Structure and mechanism of the Swi2/Snf2 remodeller Mot1 in complex with its substrate TBP.Wollmann, P., Cui, S., Viswanathan, R., Berninghausen, O., Wells, M.N., Moldt, M., Witte, G., Butryn, A., Wendler, P., Beckmann, R., Auble, D.T., Hopfner, K.P.
(2011) Nature 475: 403-407
- PubMed: 21734658
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10215
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
Swi2/Snf2-type ATPases regulate genome-associated processes such as transcription, replication and repair by catalysing the disruption, assembly or remodelling of nucleosomes or other protein-DNA complexes. It has been suggested that ATP-driven motor activity along DNA disrupts target protein-DNA interactions in the remodelling reaction. However, the complex and highly specific remodelling reactions are poorly understood, mostly because of a lack of high-resolution structural information about how remodellers bind to their substrate proteins. Mot1 (modifier of transcription 1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, denoted BTAF1 in humans) is a Swi2/Snf2 enzyme that specifically displaces the TATA box binding protein (TBP) from the promoter DNA and regulates transcription globally by generating a highly dynamic TBP pool in the cell. As a Swi2/Snf2 enzyme that functions as a single polypeptide and interacts with a relatively simple substrate, Mot1 offers an ideal system from which to gain a better understanding of this important enzyme family. To reveal how Mot1 specifically disrupts TBP-DNA complexes, we combined crystal and electron microscopy structures of Mot1-TBP from Encephalitozoon cuniculi with biochemical studies. Here we show that Mot1 wraps around TBP and seems to act like a bottle opener: a spring-like array of 16 HEAT (huntingtin, elongation factor 3, protein phosphatase 2A and lipid kinase TOR) repeats grips the DNA-distal side of TBP via loop insertions, and the Swi2/Snf2 domain binds to upstream DNA, positioned to weaken the TBP-DNA interaction by DNA translocation. A 'latch' subsequently blocks the DNA-binding groove of TBP, acting as a chaperone to prevent DNA re-association and ensure efficient promoter clearance. This work shows how a remodelling enzyme can combine both motor and chaperone activities to achieve functional specificity using a conserved Swi2/Snf2 translocase.
Department of Biochemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Feodor-Lynen-Strasse 25, 81377 Munich, Germany.