3NXU

Crystal structure of human cytochrome P4503A4 bound to an inhibitor ritonavir


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.00 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.262 
  • R-Value Work: 0.232 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.235 

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This is version 1.3 of the entry. See complete history


Literature

Structure and mechanism of the complex between cytochrome P4503A4 and ritonavir.

Sevrioukova, I.F.Poulos, T.L.

(2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107: 18422-18427

  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1010693107
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    3NXU

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Ritonavir is a HIV protease inhibitor routinely prescribed to HIV patients that also potently inactivates cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4), the major human drug-metabolizing enzyme. By inhibiting CYP3A4, ritonavir increases plasma concentrations of other anti-HIV drugs oxidized by CYP3A4 thereby improving clinical efficacy ...

    Ritonavir is a HIV protease inhibitor routinely prescribed to HIV patients that also potently inactivates cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4), the major human drug-metabolizing enzyme. By inhibiting CYP3A4, ritonavir increases plasma concentrations of other anti-HIV drugs oxidized by CYP3A4 thereby improving clinical efficacy. Despite the importance and wide use of ritonavir in anti-HIV therapy, the precise mechanism of CYP3A4 inhibition remains unclear. The available data are inconsistent and suggest that ritonavir acts as a mechanism-based, competitive or mixed competitive-noncompetitive CYP3A4 inactivator. To resolve this controversy and gain functional and structural insights into the mechanism of CYP3A4 inhibition, we investigated the ritonavir binding reaction by kinetic and equilibrium analysis, elucidated how the drug affects redox properties of the hemoprotein, and determined the 2.0 Å X-ray structure of the CYP3A4-ritonavir complex. Our results show that ritonavir is a type II ligand that perfectly fits into the CYP3A4 active site cavity and irreversibly binds to the heme iron via the thiazole nitrogen, which decreases the redox potential of the protein and precludes its reduction with the redox partner, cytochrome P450 reductase.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3900, USA. sevrioui@uci.edu



Macromolecules
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Cytochrome P450 3A4A, B485Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: CYP3A3CYP3A4
EC: 1.14.13.67 (PDB Primary Data), 1.14.13.97 (PDB Primary Data), 1.14.13.32 (PDB Primary Data), 1.14.14.1 (UniProt), 1.14.14.56 (UniProt), 1.14.14.73 (UniProt), 1.14.14.55 (UniProt)
Membrane Entity: Yes 
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P08684 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P08684 
Go to UniProtKB:  P08684
PHAROS:  P08684
Protein Feature View
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  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Binding Affinity Annotations 
IDSourceBinding Affinity
RIT BindingDB:  3NXU Ki: min: 100, max: 170 (nM) from 2 assay(s)
IC50: min: 30, max: 550 (nM) from 6 assay(s)
Biologically Interesting Molecules (External Reference) 1 Unique
Entity ID: 4
IDChainsNameType/Class2D Diagram3D Interactions
PRD_001001 (RIT)
Query on PRD_001001
H [auth A], L [auth B]RITONAVIRPeptide-like / Inhibitor Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.00 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.262 
  • R-Value Work: 0.232 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.235 
  • Space Group: C 1 2 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 162.123α = 90
b = 94.69β = 124.25
c = 93.13γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
Blu-Icedata collection
PHASERphasing
CNSrefinement
MOSFLMdata reduction

Structure Validation

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment  



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2010-10-20
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2012-12-12
    Changes: Other
  • Version 1.3: 2017-11-08
    Changes: Refinement description