Simvastatin Synthase (LovD), from Aspergillus terreus, S5 mutant, S76A mutant, complex with simvastatin

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.00 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.209 
  • R-Value Work: 0.176 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.178 

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This is version 1.4 of the entry. See complete history


Directed evolution and structural characterization of a simvastatin synthase

Gao, X.Xie, X.Pashkov, I.Sawaya, M.R.Laidman, J.Zhang, W.Cacho, R.Yeates, T.O.Tang, Y.

(2009) Chem Biol 16: 1064-1074

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2009.09.017
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    3HL9, 3HLB, 3HLC, 3HLD, 3HLE, 3HLF, 3HLG

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Enzymes from natural product biosynthetic pathways are attractive candidates for creating tailored biocatalysts to produce semisynthetic pharmaceutical compounds. LovD is an acyltransferase that converts the inactive monacolin J acid (MJA) into the cholesterol-lowering lovastatin. LovD can also synthesize the blockbuster drug simvastatin using MJA and a synthetic alpha-dimethylbutyryl thioester, albeit with suboptimal properties as a biocatalyst. Here we used directed evolution to improve the properties of LovD toward semisynthesis of simvastatin. Mutants with improved catalytic efficiency, solubility, and thermal stability were obtained, with the best mutant displaying an approximately 11-fold increase in an Escherichia coli-based biocatalytic platform. To understand the structural basis of LovD enzymology, seven X-ray crystal structures were determined, including the parent LovD, an improved mutant G5, and G5 cocrystallized with ligands. Comparisons between the structures reveal that beneficial mutations stabilize the structure of G5 in a more compact conformation that is favorable for catalysis.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Transesterase432Aspergillus terreusMutation(s): 9 
Find proteins for Q9Y7D1 (Aspergillus terreus)
Explore Q9Y7D1 
Go to UniProtKB:  Q9Y7D1
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupQ9Y7D1
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChains Name / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
Query on SIM

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
B [auth A]Simvastatin acid
C25 H40 O6
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.00 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.209 
  • R-Value Work: 0.176 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.178 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 21
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 58.47α = 90
b = 75.066β = 90
c = 131.819γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
DENZOdata reduction
SCALEPACKdata scaling
PDB_EXTRACTdata extraction
ADSCdata collection

Structure Validation

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 

Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2009-10-27
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Advisory, Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2017-11-01
    Changes: Refinement description
  • Version 1.3: 2021-10-13
    Changes: Database references, Derived calculations
  • Version 1.4: 2023-09-06
    Changes: Data collection, Refinement description