Cross-Link Formation of the Cysteine 228-Tyrosine 272 Catalytic Cofactor of Galactose Oxidase Does not Require Dioxygen.Rogers, M.S., Hurtado-Guerrero, R., Firbank, S.J., Halcrow, M.A., Dooley, D.M., Phillips, S.E.V., Knowles, P.F., McPherson, M.J.
(2008) Biochemistry 47: 10428
- PubMed: 18771294
- DOI: 10.1021/bi8010835
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
Galactose oxidase (GO) belongs to a class of proteins that self-catalyze assembly of their redox-active cofactors from active site amino acids. Generation of enzymatically active GO appears to require at least four sequential post-translational modif ...
Galactose oxidase (GO) belongs to a class of proteins that self-catalyze assembly of their redox-active cofactors from active site amino acids. Generation of enzymatically active GO appears to require at least four sequential post-translational modifications: cleavage of a secretion signal sequence, copper-dependent cleavage of an N-terminal pro sequence, copper-dependent formation of a C228-Y272 thioether bond, and generation of the Y272 radical. The last two processes were investigated using a truncated protein (termed premat-GO) lacking the pro sequence and purified under copper-free conditions. Reactions of premat-GO with Cu(II) were investigated using optical, EPR, and resonance Raman spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, and X-ray crystallography. Premat-GO reacted anaerobically with excess Cu(II) to efficiently form the thioether bond but not the Y272 radical. A potential C228-copper coordinated intermediate (lambda max = 406 nm) in the processing reaction, which had not yet formed the C228-Y272 cross-link, was identified from the absorption spectrum. A copper-thiolate protein complex, with copper coordinated to C228, H496, and H581, was also observed in a 3 min anaerobic soak by X-ray crystallography, whereas a 24 h soak revealed the C228-Y272 thioether bond. In solution, addition of oxygenated buffer to premat-GO preincubated with excess Cu(II) generated the Y272 radical state. On the basis of these data, a mechanism for the formation of the C228-Y272 bond and tyrosyl radical generation is proposed. The 406 nm complex is demonstrated to be a catalytically competent processing intermediate under anaerobic conditions. We propose a potential mechanism which is in common with aerobic processing by Cu(II) until the step at which the second electron acceptor is required.
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA.