Crystal Structure of a Glutamate/Aspartate Binding Protein Complexed with a Glutamate Molecule: Structural Basis of Ligand Specificity at Atomic Resolution.Hu, Y.L., Fan, C.-P., Fu, G.S., Zhu, D.Y., Jin, Q., Wang, D.-C.
(2008) J Mol Biol 382: 99
- PubMed: 18640128
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2008.06.091
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
The crystal structure of a periplasmic l-aspartate/l-glutamate binding protein (DEBP) from Shigella flexneri complexed with an l-glutamate molecule has been determined and refined to an atomic resolution of 1.0 A. There are two DEBP molecules in the asymmetric unit. The refined model contains 4462 non-hydrogen protein atoms, 730 water molecules, 2 bound glutamate molecules, and 2 Tris molecules from the buffer used in crystallization. The final R(cryst) and R(free) factors are 13.61% and 16.89%, respectively. The structure has root-mean-square deviations of 0.016 A from standard bond lengths and 2.35 degrees from standard bond angles. The DEBP molecule is composed of two similarly folded domains separated by the ligand binding region. Both domains contain a central five-stranded beta-sheet that is surrounded by several alpha-helices. The two domains are linked by two antiparallel beta-strands. The overall shape of DEBP is that of an ellipsoid approximately 55 A x 45 A x 40 A in size. The binding of ligand to DEBP is achieved mostly through hydrogen bonds between the glutamate and side-chain and main-chain groups of DEBP. Side chains of residues Arg24, Ser72, Arg75, Ser90, and His164 anchor the deprotonated gamma-carboxylate group of the glutamate with six hydrogen bonds. Side chains of Arg75 and Arg90 form salt bridges with the deprotonated alpha-carboxylate group, while the main-chain amide groups of Thr92 and Thr140 form hydrogen bonds with the same group. The positively charged alpha-amino group of the L-glutamate forms salt bridge interaction with the side-chain carboxylate group of Asp182 and hydrogen bond interaction with main-chain carbonyl oxygen of Ser90. In addition to these hydrogen bond and electrostatic interactions, other interactions may also play important roles. For example, the two methylene groups from the glutamate form van der Waals interactions with hydrophobic side chains of DEBP. Comparisons with several other periplasmic amino acid binding proteins indicate that DEBP residues involved in the binding of alpha-amino and alpha-carboxylate groups of the ligand and the pattern of hydrogen bond formation between these groups are very well conserved, but the binding pocket around the ligand side chain is not, leading to the specificity of DEBP. We have identified structural features of DEBP that determine its ability of binding glutamate and aspartate, two molecules with different sizes, but discriminating against very similar glutamine and asparagine molecules.
National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Beijing 100101, P.R. China. email@example.com