The identification and structural characterization of C7orf24 as gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase. An essential enzyme in the gamma-glutamyl cycleOakley, A.J., Yamada, T., Liu, D., Coggan, M., Clark, A.G., Board, P.G.
(2008) J Biol Chem 283: 22031-22042
- PubMed: 18515354
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M803623200
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
2PN7, 2RBH, 3CRY
- PubMed Abstract:
The hypothetical protein C7orf24 has been implicated as a cancer marker with a potential role in cell proliferation. We have identified C7orf24 as gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase (GGCT) that catalyzes the formation of 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) from gamma-glutamyl dipeptides and potentially plays a significant role in glutathione homeostasis. In the present study we have identified the first cDNA clones encoding a gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase. The GGCT gene is located on chromosome 7p14-15 and consists of four exons that span 8 kb. The primary sequence is 188 amino acids in length and is unlike any protein of known function. We crystallized functional recombinant gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase and determined its structure at 1.7 A resolution. The enzyme is a dimer of 20,994-Da subunits. The topology of GGCT is unrelated to other enzymes associated with cyclotransferase-like activity. The fold was originally classified as "BtrG-like," a small family that only includes structures of hypothetical proteins from Mus musculus, Escherichia coli, Pyrococcus horikoshii, and Arabidopsis thaliana. Since this is the first member of this family with a defined function, we propose to refer to this structure as the gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase fold. We have identified a potential active site pocket that contains a highly conserved glutamic acid (Glu(98)) and propose that it acts as a general acid/base in the reaction mechanism. Mutation of Glu(98) to Ala or Gln completely inactivates the enzyme without altering the overall fold.
Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia.