2QB4

Crystal Structure Analysis of LeuT complexed with L-leucine, sodium and desipramine


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.9 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.217 
  • R-Value Work: 0.201 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Antidepressant binding site in a bacterial homologue of neurotransmitter transporters.

Singh, S.K.Yamashita, A.Gouaux, E.

(2007) Nature 448: 952-956

  • DOI: 10.1038/nature06038
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
  • Also Cited By: 3F4J, 3F4I, 3F48

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of th ...

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 A above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the rational design of new inhibitors.


    Related Citations: 
    • Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of Na+/Cl--dependent neurotransmitter transporters
      Yamashita, A.,Singh, S.K.,Kawate, T.,Jin, Y.,Gouaux, E.
      (2005) Nature 437: 215


    Organizational Affiliation

    The Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Transporter
A
519Aquifex aeolicus (strain VF5)Mutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: snf
Membrane protein
mpstruct
Group: 
TRANSMEMBRANE PROTEINS: ALPHA-HELICAL
Sub Group: 
Amino Acid Secondary Transporters
Protein: 
LeuTAa Leucine transporter
Find proteins for O67854 (Aquifex aeolicus (strain VF5))
Go to UniProtKB:  O67854
Small Molecules
Ligands 4 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
NA
Query on NA

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A
SODIUM ION
Na
FKNQFGJONOIPTF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
LEU
Query on LEU

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A
LEUCINE
C6 H13 N O2
ROHFNLRQFUQHCH-YFKPBYRVSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
BOG
Query on BOG

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A
B-OCTYLGLUCOSIDE
C14 H28 O6
HEGSGKPQLMEBJL-RKQHYHRCSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
DSM
Query on DSM

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A
3-(10,11-DIHYDRO-5H-DIBENZO[B,F]AZEPIN-5-YL)-N-METHYLPROPAN-1-AMINE
C18 H22 N2
HCYAFALTSJYZDH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.9 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.217 
  • R-Value Work: 0.201 
  • Space Group: C 1 2 1
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 88.290α = 90.00
b = 86.770β = 96.02
c = 81.250γ = 90.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
ADSCdata collection
CNSphasing
HKL-2000data reduction
HKL-2000data scaling
CNSrefinement

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2007-08-21
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-07-13
    Type: Derived calculations, Source and taxonomy, Version format compliance