Stable copper-nitrosyl formation by nitrite reductase in either oxidation stateTocheva, E.I., Rosell, F.I., Mauk, A.G., Murphy, M.E.
(2007) Biochemistry 46: 12366-12374
- PubMed: 17924665
- DOI: 10.1021/bi701205j
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
Nitrite reductase (NiR) is an enzyme that uses type 1 and type 2 copper sites to reduce nitrite to nitric oxide during bacterial denitrification. A copper-nitrosyl intermediate is a proposed, yet poorly characterized feature of the NiR catalytic cycl ...
Nitrite reductase (NiR) is an enzyme that uses type 1 and type 2 copper sites to reduce nitrite to nitric oxide during bacterial denitrification. A copper-nitrosyl intermediate is a proposed, yet poorly characterized feature of the NiR catalytic cycle. This intermediate is formally described as Cu(I)-NO+ and is proposed to be formed at the type 2 copper site after nitrite binding and electron transfer from the type 1 copper site. In this study, copper-nitrosyl complexes were formed by prolonged exposure of exogenous NO to crystals of wild-type and two variant forms of NiR from Alcaligenes faecalis (AfNiR), and the structures were determined to 1.8 A or better resolution. Exposing oxidized wild-type crystals to NO results in the reverse reaction and formation of nitrite that remains bound at the active site. In a type 1 copper site mutant (H145A) that is incapable of electron transfer to the type 2 site, the reverse reaction is not observed. Instead, in both oxidized and reduced H145A crystals, NO is observed bound in a side-on manner to the type 2 copper. In AfNiR, Asp98 forms hydrogen bonds to both substrate and product bound to the type 2 Cu. In the D98N variant, NO is bound side-on but is more disordered when observed for the wild-type enzyme. The solution EPR spectra of the crystallographically characterized NiR-NO complexes indicate the presence of an oxidized type 2 copper site and thus are interpreted as resulting from stable copper-nitrosyls and formally assigned as Cu(II)-NO-. A reaction scheme in which a second NO molecule is oxidized to nitrite can account for the formation of a Cu(II)-NO- species after exposure of the oxidized H145A variant to NO gas.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Life Sciences Institute, University of British Columbia, 2350 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada.