Structure-guided activity enhancement and catalytic mechanism of yeast grx8Tang, Y., Zhang, J., Yu, J., Xu, L., Wu, J., Zhou, C.Z., Shi, Y.
(2014) Biochemistry 53: 2185-2196
- PubMed: 24611845
- DOI: 10.1021/bi401293s
- PubMed Abstract:
Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are wide-spread oxidoreductases that are found in all kingdoms of life. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes eight Grxs, among which, Grx8 shares a sequence identity of 30 and 23% with typical dithiol Grx1 and Grx2, respect ...
Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are wide-spread oxidoreductases that are found in all kingdoms of life. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes eight Grxs, among which, Grx8 shares a sequence identity of 30 and 23% with typical dithiol Grx1 and Grx2, respectively, but it exhibits a much lower GSH-dependent oxidoreductase activity. To elucidate its catalytic mechanism, we solved the solution structure of Grx8, which displays a typical Grx fold. Structural analysis indicated that Grx8 possesses a negatively charged CXXC motif (Cys(33)-Pro(34)-Asp(35)-Cys(36)) and a GSH-recognition site, which are distinct from Grx1 and Grx2. Subsequent structure-guided site mutations revealed that the D35Y single mutant and N80T/L81V double mutant possess increased activity of 10- and 11-fold, respectively; moreover, the D35Y/N80T/L81V triple mutant has increased activity of up to 44-fold, which is comparable to that of canonical Grx. Biochemical analyses suggested that the increase in catalytic efficiency resulted from a decreased pKa value of catalytic cysteine Cys33 and/or enhancement of the putative GSH-recognition site. Moreover, NMR chemical shift perturbation analyses combined with GSH analogue inhibition assays enabled us to elucidate that wild-type Grx8 and all mutants adopt a ping-pong mechanism of catalysis. All together, these findings provide structural insights into the catalytic mechanism of dithiol Grxs.
Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China , Hefei, Anhui 230027, People's Republic of China.