c-MYC promoter G-quadruplex formed at the 5'-end of NHE III1 element: insights into biological relevance and parallel-stranded G-quadruplex stability.Mathad, R.I., Hatzakis, E., Dai, J., Yang, D.
(2011) Nucleic Acids Res. 39: 9023-9033
- PubMed: 21795379
- DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkr612
- PubMed Abstract:
We studied the structures and stabilities of G-quadruplexes formed in Myc1234, the region containing the four consecutive 5' runs of guanines of c-MYC promoter NHE III(1,) which have recently been shown to form in a supercoiled plasmid system in aque ...
We studied the structures and stabilities of G-quadruplexes formed in Myc1234, the region containing the four consecutive 5' runs of guanines of c-MYC promoter NHE III(1,) which have recently been shown to form in a supercoiled plasmid system in aqueous solution. We determined the NMR solution structure of the 1:2:1 parallel-stranded loop isomer, one of the two major loop isomers formed in Myc1234 in K(+) solution. This major loop isomer, although sharing the same folding structure, appears to be markedly less stable than the major loop isomer formed in the single-stranded c-MYC NHE III(1) oligonucleotide, the Myc2345 G-quadruplex. Our NMR structures indicated that the different thermostabilities of the two 1:2:1 parallel c-MYC G-quadruplexes are likely caused by the different base conformations of the single nucleotide loops. The observation of the formation of the Myc1234 G-quadruplex in the supercoiled plasmid thus points to the potential role of supercoiling in the G-quadruplex formation in promoter sequences. We also performed a systematic thermodynamic analysis of modified c-MYC NHE III(1) sequences, which provided quantitative measure of the contributions of various loop sequences to the thermostabilities of parallel-stranded G-quadruplexes. This information is important for understanding the equilibrium of promoter G-quadruplex loop isomers and for their drug targeting.
College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.