Crystal Structure of Glutathione Reductase Glr1 from the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.40 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.205 
  • R-Value Work: 0.202 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.202 

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This is version 1.4 of the entry. See complete history


Crystal structure of glutathione reductase Glr1 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Yu, J.Zhou, C.Z.

(2007) Proteins 68: 972-979

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/prot.21354
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Yeast glutathione (GSH) reductase Glr1 is a dimeric flavo-oxidoreductase involved in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox regulatory systems. It reduces the oxidized GSH GSSG to the reduced form, GSH with NADPH as electron donor and FAD as coenzyme. Crystal structures and enzymatic mechanisms of GSH reductases from Escherichia coli and Homo sapiens have been well investigated, whereas the structural properties of yeast Glr1 remain unknown. Herein, we overexpressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae Glr1 in Pichia pastoris GS115 and determined its crystal structure at 2.40 A resolution. Although the overall structure and the active site are much conserved, obvious variety was found at the interface of Glr1 monomers when superimposed against the homolog from E. coli or human. The nonconserved C239 is exposed to the solvent and accessible to GSH or GSSG enriched in a microenvironment around the Glr1 molecules, leading to the partial and transient glutathionylation, as primarily identified from the 2Fo-Fc electron density map and further confirmed by biochemical assays. Meanwhile N278 at the vicinity of NADP-binding pocket was artificially glycosylated when heterogeneously overexpressed in P. pastoris. The highly motile oligosaccharide chain linked to N278 of the recombinant Glr1 interferes with the entry of NADPH, which results in a dramatic increase of Km for NAPDH and a significant decrease of turnover number, when compared with the native protein.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui 230027, People's Republic of China.

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Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Glutathione reductase
A, B
479Saccharomyces cerevisiaeMutation(s): 0 
Find proteins for P41921 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c))
Explore P41921 
Go to UniProtKB:  P41921
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP41921
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 5 Unique
IDChains Name / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
Query on FAD

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E [auth A],
N [auth B]
C27 H33 N9 O15 P2
Query on GSH

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F [auth A],
O [auth B]
C10 H17 N3 O6 S
Query on NAG

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C [auth A],
L [auth B]
C8 H15 N O6
Query on PO4

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D [auth A],
M [auth B]
O4 P
Query on GOL

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G [auth A]
H [auth A]
I [auth A]
J [auth A]
K [auth A]
G [auth A],
H [auth A],
I [auth A],
J [auth A],
K [auth A],
P [auth B],
Q [auth B],
R [auth B],
S [auth B],
T [auth B],
U [auth B]
C3 H8 O3
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.40 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.205 
  • R-Value Work: 0.202 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.202 
  • Space Group: P 42
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 116.966α = 90
b = 116.966β = 90
c = 85.242γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
AUTOMARdata reduction

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2007-06-12
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-05-01
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Non-polymer description, Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2020-07-29
    Type: Remediation
    Reason: Carbohydrate remediation
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations, Structure summary
  • Version 1.4: 2023-10-25
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Refinement description, Structure summary