Crystal structure of BMP-9 and functional interactions with pro-region and receptorsBrown, M.A., Zhao, Q., Baker, K.A., Naik, C., Chen, C., Pukac, L., Singh, M., Tsareva, T., Parice, Y., Mahoney, A., Roschke, V., Sanyal, I., Choe, S.
(2005) J.Biol.Chem. 280: 25111-25118
- PubMed: 15851468
- DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M503328200
- Also Cited By: 5I05
- PubMed Abstract:
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a subset of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily, regulate a diverse array of cellular functions during development and in the adult. BMP-9 (also known as growth and differentiation factor (GDF)-2) ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a subset of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily, regulate a diverse array of cellular functions during development and in the adult. BMP-9 (also known as growth and differentiation factor (GDF)-2) potently induces osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, has been implicated in the differentiation of cholinergic neurons, and may help regulate glucose metabolism. We have determined the structure of BMP-9 to 2.3 A and examined the differences between our model and existing crystal structures of other BMPs, both in isolation and in complex with their receptors. TGF-beta ligands are translated as precursors, with pro-regions that generally dissociate after cleavage from the ligand, but in some cases (including GDF-8 and TGF-beta1, -2, and -3), the pro-region remains associated after secretion from the cell and inhibits binding of the ligand to its receptor. Although the proregion of BMP-9 remains tightly associated after secretion, we find, in several cell-based assays, that the activities of BMP-9 and BMP-9.pro-region complex were equivalent. Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1), an orphan receptor in the TGF-beta family, was also identified as a potential receptor for BMP-9 based on surface plasmon resonance studies (BIAcore) and the ability of soluble ALK-1 to block the activity of BMP-9.pro-region complex in cell-based assays.
Structural Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.