High-resolution crystal structure of aldose reductase complexed with the novel sulfonyl-pyridazinone inhibitor exhibiting an alternative active site anchoring group.Steuber, H., Zentgraf, M., Podjarny, A., Heine, A., Klebe, G.
(2006) J.Mol.Biol. 356: 45-56
- PubMed: 16337231
- DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2005.10.067
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:  1Z89
- PubMed Abstract:
The crystal structure of a novel sulfonyl-pyridazinone inhibitor in complex with aldose reductase, the first enzyme of the polyol pathway, has been determined to 1.43 angstroms and 0.95 angstroms resolution. The ternary complex of inhibitor, cofactor ...
The crystal structure of a novel sulfonyl-pyridazinone inhibitor in complex with aldose reductase, the first enzyme of the polyol pathway, has been determined to 1.43 angstroms and 0.95 angstroms resolution. The ternary complex of inhibitor, cofactor and enzyme has been obtained by soaking of preformed crystals. Supposedly due to low solubility in the crystallisation buffer, in both structures the inhibitor shows reduced occupancy of 74% and 46% population, respectively. The pyridazinone head group of the inhibitor occupies the catalytic site, whereas the chloro-benzofuran moiety penetrates into the opened specificity pocket. The high-resolution structure provides some evidence that the pyridazinone group binds in a negatively charged deprotonated state, whereas the neighbouring His110 residue most likely adopts a neutral uncharged status. Since the latter structure is populated by the ligand to only 46%, a second conformation of the C-terminal ligand-binding region can be detected. This conformation corresponds to the closed state of the specificity pocket when no or only small ligands are bound to aldose reductase. The two conformational states are in good agreement with frames observed along a molecular dynamics trajectory describing the transition from closed to open situation. Accordingly, both geometries, superimposed in the averaged crystal structure, correspond to snapshots of the ligand-bound and the unbound state. Isothermal titration calorimetry has been applied to determine the binding constants of the investigated pyridazinone in comparison to the hydantoin sorbinil and the carboxylate-type inhibitors IDD 594 and tolrestat. The pyridazinone exhibits a binding affinity similar to those of tolrestat and sorbinil, and shows slightly reduced affinity compared to IDD 594. These studies elucidating the binding mode and providing information about protonation states of protein side-chains involved in binding of this novel class of inhibitors establish the platform for further structure-based drug design.
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps-University Marburg, Marbacher Weg 6, 35032 Marburg, Germany.