The 2.15 A Crystal Structure of Cg-16, the Developmentally Regulated Homodimeric Chicken GalectinVarela, P.F., Solis, D., Diaz-Maurino, T., Kaltner, H., Gabius, H.-J., Romero, A.
(1999) J.Mol.Biol. 294: 537
- PubMed: 10610778
- DOI: 10.1006/jmbi.1999.3273
- PubMed Abstract:
- Developmentally Regulated Lectin in Embryonic Chick Muscle and a Myogenic Cell Line
Nowak, T.P.,Haywood, P.L.,Barondes, S.H.
(1976) Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 68: 650
Differential developmental regulation of expression, fine-specificity differences in ligand recognition and disparate capacity for homodimerization are characteristics of the two currently known proto-type chicken galectins. The X-ray crystal structu ...
Differential developmental regulation of expression, fine-specificity differences in ligand recognition and disparate capacity for homodimerization are characteristics of the two currently known proto-type chicken galectins. The X-ray crystal structure of the first avian galectin, the homodimeric agglutinin from chicken liver (CG-16), has been solved in the absence of ligand in two crystal forms. Although the arrangement of lectin dimers in the two crystals is different, the structure of the monomers and their association into the extended beta-sandwich that characterises the dimer are virtually identical. The fold establishes a beta-sandwich motif composed of a five-stranded and a six-stranded beta-sheet evocative of proto-type mammalian galectins. The carbohydrate-binding site is occupied by six water molecules that take the place of the sugar in the complex. They help to stabilise in the absence of the ligand the spatial arrangement of the amino acid side-chains involved in sugar recognition. Docking of N-acetyllactosamine into the binding site reveals that three of these water molecules, which are in direct contact with the protein, occupy positions equivalent to the key sugar hydroxyl groups, namely the hydroxyls at positions 4 and 6 of the galactose unit and at position 3 of the N-acetylglucosamine unit. Crystallographic data are fully consistent with the binding features in solution previously derived from chemical mapping with deoxy, fluoro and O-methyl derivatives and laser photo-CIDNP (chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarisation) studies. The possible molecular basis for the monomeric character of the chicken intestinal galectin as well as potential mechanisms of oxidative inactivation by disulphide bridging are evaluated on the basis of the given structural information concerning the CG-16 dimer interface and the cysteine residues, respectively.
Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, Velázquez 144, Madrid, E-28006, Spain.