Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.60 Å
  • R-Value Work: 0.200 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.200 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report

This is version 1.3 of the entry. See complete history


Crystal structure at 2.6-A resolution of human macrophage migration inhibitory factor.

Sun, H.W.Bernhagen, J.Bucala, R.Lolis, E.

(1996) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93: 5191-5196

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.11.5191
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was the first cytokine to be described, but for 30 years its role in the immune response remained enigmatic. In recent studies, MIF has been found to be a novel pituitary hormone and the first protein identified to be released from immune cells on glucocorticoid stimulation. Once secreted, MIF counterregulates the immunosuppressive effects of steroids and thus acts as a critical component of the immune system to control both local and systemic immune responses. We report herein the x-ray crystal structure of human MIF to 2.6 angstrom resolution. The protein is a trimer of identical subunits. Each monomer contains two antiparallel alpha-helices that pack against a four-stranded beta-sheet. The monomer has an additional two beta-strands that interact with the beta-sheets of adjacent subunits to form the interface between monomers. The three beta-sheets are arranged to form a barrel containing a solvent-accessible channel that runs through the center of the protein along a molecular 3-fold axis. Electrostatic potential maps reveal that the channel has a positive potential, suggesting that it binds negatively charged molecules. The elucidated structure for MIF is unique among cytokines or hormonal mediators, and suggests that this counterregulator of glucocorticoid action participates in novel ligand-receptor interactions.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
A, B, C
115Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P14174 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P14174 
Go to UniProtKB:  P14174
PHAROS:  P14174
GTEx:  ENSG00000240972 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP14174
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.60 Å
  • R-Value Work: 0.200 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.200 
  • Space Group: P 31 2 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 96.8α = 90
b = 96.8β = 90
c = 106.3γ = 120
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
X-PLORmodel building
XDSdata reduction

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report

Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 1996-12-07
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-03-24
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2024-02-14
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Other