1JXK

Role of ethe mobile loop in the mehanism of human salivary amylase


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.90 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.200 
  • R-Value Work: 0.173 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.176 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report



Literature

Probing the role of a mobile loop in substrate binding and enzyme activity of human salivary amylase

Ramasubbu, N.Ragunath, C.Mishra, P.J.

(2003) J Mol Biol 325: 1061-1076

  • DOI: 10.1016/s0022-2836(02)01326-8
  • Structures With Same Primary Citation

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Mammalian amylases harbor a flexible, glycine-rich loop 304GHGAGGA(310), which becomes ordered upon oligosaccharide binding and moves in toward the substrate. In order to probe the role of this loop in catalysis, a deletion mutant lacking residues 30 ...

    Mammalian amylases harbor a flexible, glycine-rich loop 304GHGAGGA(310), which becomes ordered upon oligosaccharide binding and moves in toward the substrate. In order to probe the role of this loop in catalysis, a deletion mutant lacking residues 306-310 (Delta306) was generated. Kinetic studies showed that Delta306 exhibited: (1) a reduction (>200-fold) in the specific activity using starch as a substrate; (2) a reduction in k(cat) for maltopentaose and maltoheptaose as substrates; and (3) a twofold increase in K(m) (maltopentaose as substrate) compared to the wild-type (rHSAmy). More cleavage sites were observed for the mutant than for rHSAmy, suggesting that the mutant exhibits additional productive binding modes. Further insight into its role is obtained from the crystal structures of the two enzymes soaked with acarbose, a transition-state analog. Both enzymes modify acarbose upon binding through hydrolysis, condensation or transglycosylation reactions. Electron density corresponding to six and seven fully occupied subsites in the active site of rHSAmy and Delta306, respectively, were observed. Comparison of the crystal structures showed that: (1) the hydrophobic cover provided by the mobile loop for the subsites at the reducing end of the rHSAmy complex is notably absent in the mutant; (2) minimal changes in the protein-ligand interactions around subsites S1 and S1', where the cleavage would occur; (3) a well-positioned water molecule in the mutant provides a hydrogen bond interaction similar to that provided by the His305 in rHSAmy complex; (4) the active site-bound oligosaccharides exhibit minimal conformational differences between the two enzymes. Collectively, while the kinetic data suggest that the mobile loop may be involved in assisting the catalysis during the transition state, crystallographic data suggest that the loop may play a role in the release of the product(s) from the active site.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Oral Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07103, USA. n.ramasubbu@umdnj.edu



Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Alpha-amylase, salivary
A
491Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: AMY1AAMY1AMY1BAMY1C
EC: 3.2.1.1
Find proteins for P04745 (Homo sapiens)
Go to UniProtKB:  P04745
NIH Common Fund Data Resources
PHAROS  P04745
Small Molecules
Ligands 2 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
CA
Query on CA

Download CCD File 
A
CALCIUM ION
Ca
BHPQYMZQTOCNFJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
CL
Query on CL

Download CCD File 
A
CHLORIDE ION
Cl
VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
 Ligand Interaction
Modified Residues  1 Unique
IDChainsTypeFormula2D DiagramParent
PCA
Query on PCA
AL-PEPTIDE LINKINGC5 H7 N O3GLN
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.90 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.200 
  • R-Value Work: 0.173 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.176 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 21
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 52.9α = 90
b = 75.737β = 90
c = 134.554γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
SCALEPACKdata scaling
AMoREphasing
REFMACrefinement

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2001-09-14
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-04-27
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2017-10-04
    Changes: Refinement description
  • Version 2.0: 2019-12-25
    Changes: Database references, Derived calculations, Polymer sequence