Kinetic and Structural Studies on the Interaction of Cholinesterases with the Anti-Alzheimer Drug RivastigmineBar-on, P., Millard, C.B., Harel, M., Dvir, H., Enz, A., Sussman, J.L., Silman, I.
(2002) Biochemistry 41: 3555
- PubMed: 11888271
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- Also Cited By: 2BAG
- PubMed Abstract:
- Atomic Structure of Acetylcholinesterase from Torpedo Californica: A Prototypic Acetylcholine-Binding Protein
Sussman, J.L.,Harel, M.,Frolow, F.,Oefner, C.,Goldman, A.,Toker, L.,Silman, I.
(1991) Science 253: 872
- Huperzine A--A Potent Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor of Use in the Treatment of Alzheimer'S Disease
Geib, S.J.,Tuckmantel, W.,Kozikowski, A.P.
(1991) Acta Crystallogr.,Sect.C 47: 824
- Mechanism of Inhibition of Cholinesterases by Huperzine A
Ashani, Y.,Peggins III, J.O.,Doctor, B.P.
(1992) Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 184: 719
Rivastigmine, a carbamate inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, is already in use for treatment of Alzheimer's disease under the trade name of Exelon. Rivastigmine carbamylates Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase very slowly (k(i) = 2.0 M(-1) min(- ...
Rivastigmine, a carbamate inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, is already in use for treatment of Alzheimer's disease under the trade name of Exelon. Rivastigmine carbamylates Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase very slowly (k(i) = 2.0 M(-1) min(-1)), whereas the bimolecular rate constant for inhibition of human acetylcholinesterase is >1600-fold higher (k(i) = 3300 M(-1) min(-1)). For human butyrylcholinesterase and for Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase, carbamylation is even more rapid (k(i) = 9 x 10(4) and 5 x 10(5) M(-1) min(-1), respectively). Spontaneous reactivation of all four conjugates is very slow, with <10% reactivation being observed for the Torpedo enzyme after 48 h. The crystal structure of the conjugate of rivastigmine with Torpedo acetylcholinesterase was determined to 2.2 A resolution. It revealed that the carbamyl moiety is covalently linked to the active-site serine, with the leaving group, (-)-S-3-[1-(dimethylamino)ethyl]phenol, being retained in the "anionic" site. A significant movement of the active-site histidine (H440) away from its normal hydrogen-bonded partner, E327, was observed, resulting in disruption of the catalytic triad. This movement may provide an explanation for the unusually slow kinetics of reactivation.
Departmentof Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.