1GQR

ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE (E.C. 3.1.1.7) COMPLEXED WITH RIVASTIGMINE


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.20 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.236 
  • R-Value Work: 0.199 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.199 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.3 of the entry. See complete history


Literature

Kinetic and Structural Studies on the Interaction of Cholinesterases with the Anti-Alzheimer Drug Rivastigmine

Bar-on, P.Millard, C.B.Harel, M.Dvir, H.Enz, A.Sussman, J.L.Silman, I.

(2002) Biochemistry 41: 3555

  • DOI: 10.1021/bi020016x
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    1GQR, 1GQS

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Rivastigmine, a carbamate inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, is already in use for treatment of Alzheimer's disease under the trade name of Exelon. Rivastigmine carbamylates Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase very slowly (k(i) = 2.0 M(-1) min(-1)), whereas the bimolecular rate constant for inhibition of human acetylcholinesterase is >1600-fold higher (k(i) = 3300 M(-1) min(-1)) ...

    Rivastigmine, a carbamate inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, is already in use for treatment of Alzheimer's disease under the trade name of Exelon. Rivastigmine carbamylates Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase very slowly (k(i) = 2.0 M(-1) min(-1)), whereas the bimolecular rate constant for inhibition of human acetylcholinesterase is >1600-fold higher (k(i) = 3300 M(-1) min(-1)). For human butyrylcholinesterase and for Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase, carbamylation is even more rapid (k(i) = 9 x 10(4) and 5 x 10(5) M(-1) min(-1), respectively). Spontaneous reactivation of all four conjugates is very slow, with <10% reactivation being observed for the Torpedo enzyme after 48 h. The crystal structure of the conjugate of rivastigmine with Torpedo acetylcholinesterase was determined to 2.2 A resolution. It revealed that the carbamyl moiety is covalently linked to the active-site serine, with the leaving group, (-)-S-3-[1-(dimethylamino)ethyl]phenol, being retained in the "anionic" site. A significant movement of the active-site histidine (H440) away from its normal hydrogen-bonded partner, E327, was observed, resulting in disruption of the catalytic triad. This movement may provide an explanation for the unusually slow kinetics of reactivation.


    Related Citations: 
    • Mechanism of Inhibition of Cholinesterases by Huperzine A
      Ashani, Y., Peggins III, J.O., Doctor, B.P.
      (1992) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 184: 719
    • Huperzine A--A Potent Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor of Use in the Treatment of Alzheimer'S Disease
      Geib, S.J., Tuckmantel, W., Kozikowski, A.P.
      (1991) Acta Crystallogr C 47: 824
    • Atomic Structure of Acetylcholinesterase from Torpedo Californica: A Prototypic Acetylcholine-Binding Protein
      Sussman, J.L., Harel, M., Frolow, F., Oefner, C., Goldman, A., Toker, L., Silman, I.
      (1991) Science 253: 872

    Organizational Affiliation

    Departmentof Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.



Macromolecules
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
ACETYLCHOLINESTERASEA532Tetronarce californicaMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: ache
EC: 3.1.1.7
Find proteins for P04058 (Tetronarce californica)
Explore P04058 
Go to UniProtKB:  P04058
Protein Feature View
Expand
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 3 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
NAG
Query on NAG

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
B [auth A], C [auth A]2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranose
C8 H15 N O6
OVRNDRQMDRJTHS-FMDGEEDCSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
SAF
Query on SAF

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
D [auth A]3-[(1S)-1-(DIMETHYLAMINO)ETHYL]PHENOL
C10 H15 N O
GQZXRLWUYONVCP-QMMMGPOBSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
EMM
Query on EMM

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
E [auth A][METHYL(VINYL)AMINO]METHANOL
C4 H7 N O2
RIKKDQCPYLBOND-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
External Ligand Annotations 
IDBinding Affinity (Sequence Identity %)
SAFKi:  700   nM  BindingDB
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.20 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.236 
  • R-Value Work: 0.199 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.199 
  • Space Group: P 31 2 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 112.052α = 90
b = 112.052β = 90
c = 136.77γ = 120
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
X-PLORrefinement
DENZOdata reduction
SCALEPACKdata scaling
X-PLORphasing

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2002-03-15
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-08-24
    Changes: Derived calculations, Non-polymer description, Other, Structure summary, Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2018-02-07
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.3: 2020-07-29
    Type: Remediation
    Reason: Carbohydrate remediation
    Changes: Data collection, Derived calculations, Other, Structure summary