Heparan/chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis. Structure and mechanism of human glucuronyltransferase I.Pedersen, L.C., Tsuchida, K., Kitagawa, H., Sugahara, K., Darden, T.A., Negishi, M.
(2000) J Biol Chem 275: 34580-34585
- PubMed: 10946001
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M007399200
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
Human beta1,3-glucuronyltransferase I (GlcAT-I) is a central enzyme in the initial steps of proteoglycan synthesis. GlcAT-I transfers a glucuronic acid moiety from the uridine diphosphate-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) to the common linkage region trisaccharide Gal beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Xyl covalently bound to a Ser residue at the glycosaminylglycan attachment site of proteoglycans. We have now determined the crystal structure of GlcAT-1 at 2.3 A in the presence of the donor substrate product UDP, the catalytic Mn(2+) ion, and the acceptor substrate analog Gal beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Xyl. The enzyme is a alpha/beta protein with two subdomains that constitute the donor and acceptor substrate binding site. The active site residues lie in a cleft extending across both subdomains in which the trisaccharide molecule is oriented perpendicular to the UDP. Residues Glu(227), Asp(252), and Glu(281) dictate the binding orientation of the terminal Gal-2 moiety. Residue Glu(281) is in position to function as a catalytic base by deprotonating the incoming 3-hydroxyl group of the acceptor. The conserved DXD motif (Asp(194), Asp(195), Asp(196)) has direct interaction with the ribose of the UDP molecule as well as with the Mn(2+) ion. The key residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis are conserved in the glucuronyltransferase family as well as other glycosyltransferases.
Pharmacogenetic Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, NIEHS, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.