Conformational mapping of the N-terminal peptide of HIV-1 gp41 in membrane environments using (13)C-enhanced Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.Gordon, L.M., Mobley, P.W., Pilpa, R., Sherman, M.A., Waring, A.J.
(2002) Biochim Biophys Acta 1559: 96-120
- PubMed: 11853678
- DOI: 10.1016/s0005-2736(01)00443-6
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
The N-terminal domain of HIV-1 glycoprotein 41000 (FP; residues 1--23; AVGIGALFLGFLGAAGSTMGARSCONH(2)) participates in fusion processes underlying virus--cell infection. Here, we use physical techniques to study the secondary conformation of synthetic FP in aqueous, structure-promoting, lipid and biomembrane environments ...
The N-terminal domain of HIV-1 glycoprotein 41000 (FP; residues 1--23; AVGIGALFLGFLGAAGSTMGARSCONH(2)) participates in fusion processes underlying virus--cell infection. Here, we use physical techniques to study the secondary conformation of synthetic FP in aqueous, structure-promoting, lipid and biomembrane environments. Circular dichroism and conventional, (12)C-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated the following alpha-helical levels for FP in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG) liposomes-hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP)>trifluoroethanol (TFE)>phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). (12)C-FTIR spectra also showed disordered FP structures in these environments, along with substantial beta-structures for FP in TFE or PBS. In further experiments designed to map secondary conformations to specific residues, isotope-enhanced FTIR spectroscopy was performed using a suite of FP peptides labeled with (13)C-carbonyl at multiple sites. Combining these (13)C-enhanced FTIR results with molecular simulations indicated the following model for FP in HFIP: alpha-helix (residues 3-16) and random and beta-structures (residues 1-2 and residues 17-23). Additional (13)C-FTIR analysis indicated a similar conformation for FP in POPG at low peptide loading, except that the alpha-helix extends over residues 1-16. At low peptide loading in either human erythrocyte ghosts or lipid extracts from ghosts, (13)C-FTIR spectroscopy showed alpha-helical conformations for the central core of FP (residues 5-15); on the other hand, at high peptide loading in ghosts or lipid extracts, the central core of FP assumed an antiparallel beta-structure. FP at low loading in ghosts probably inserts deeply as an alpha-helix into the hydrophobic membrane bilayer, while at higher loading FP primarily associates with ghosts as an aqueous-accessible, beta-sheet. In future studies, (13)C-FTIR spectroscopy may yield residue-specific conformations for other membrane-bound proteins or peptides, which have been difficult to analyze with more standard methodologies.
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