Crystal structure of calpain reveals the structural basis for Ca(2+)-dependent protease activity and a novel mode of enzyme activation.Hosfield, C.M., Elce, J.S., Davies, P.L., Jia, Z.
(1999) EMBO J 18: 6880-6889
- PubMed: 10601010
- DOI: 10.1093/emboj/18.24.6880
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
- Structure of a Calpain Ca(2+)-Binding Domain Reveals a Novel EF-Hand and Ca(2+) -Induced Conformational Changes
Blanchard, H., Grochulski, P., Li, Y., Arthur, J.S.C., Davies, P.L., Elce, J.S., Cygler, M.
(1997) Nat Struct Biol 4: 532
- Crystal Structure of Calcium Bound Domain VI of Calpain at 1.9 A Resolution and its Role in Enzyme Assembly, Regulation, and Inhibitor Binding
Lin, G.D., Chattopadhyay, D., Maki, M., Wang, K.K., Carson, M., Jin, L., Hatanaka, M., Takano, E., Narayana, S.V.
(1997) Nat Struct Biol 4: 539
- Crystallization and X-Ray Crystallographic Analysis of M-Calpain: A Ca2+- Dependent Protease
Hosfield, C.M., Ye, Q., Arthur, J.S.C., Hegadorn, C., Croall, D.E., Elce, J.S., Jia, Z.
(1999) Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 55: 1484
The combination of thiol protease activity and calmodulin-like EF-hands is a feature unique to the calpains. The regulatory mechanisms governing calpain activity are complex, and the nature of the Ca(2+)-induced switch between inactive and active forms has remained elusive in the absence of structural information ...
The combination of thiol protease activity and calmodulin-like EF-hands is a feature unique to the calpains. The regulatory mechanisms governing calpain activity are complex, and the nature of the Ca(2+)-induced switch between inactive and active forms has remained elusive in the absence of structural information. We describe here the 2.6 A crystal structure of m-calpain in the Ca(2+)-free form, which illustrates the structural basis for the inactivity of calpain in the absence of Ca(2+). It also reveals an unusual thiol protease fold, which is associated with Ca(2+)-binding domains through heterodimerization and a C(2)-like beta-sandwich domain. Strikingly, the structure shows that the catalytic triad is not assembled, indicating that Ca(2+)-binding must induce conformational changes that re-orient the protease domains to form a functional active site. The alpha-helical N-terminal anchor of the catalytic subunit does not occupy the active site but inhibits its assembly and regulates Ca(2+)-sensitivity through association with the regulatory subunit. This Ca(2+)-dependent activation mechanism is clearly distinct from those of classical proteases.
Department of Biochemistry, Queen's University and The Protein Engineering Network of Centres of Excellence, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6.