Recruiting Zn2+ to mediate potent, specific inhibition of serine proteases.Katz, B.A., Luong, C.
(1999) J.Mol.Biol. 292: 669-684
- PubMed: 10497030
- DOI: 10.1006/jmbi.1999.3071
- PubMed Abstract:
As regulators of ubiquitous biological processes, serine proteases can cause disease states when inappropriately expressed or regulated, and are thus rational targets for inhibition by drugs. Recently we described a new inhibition mechanism applicabl ...
As regulators of ubiquitous biological processes, serine proteases can cause disease states when inappropriately expressed or regulated, and are thus rational targets for inhibition by drugs. Recently we described a new inhibition mechanism applicable for the development of potent, selective small molecule serine protease inhibitors that recruit physiological Zn2+ to mediate high affinity (sub-nanomolar) binding. To demonstrate some of the structural principles by which the selectivity of Zn2+-mediated serine protease inhibitors can be developed toward or against a particular target, here we determine and describe the structures of thrombin-BABIM-Zn2+, -keto-BABIM-Zn2+, and -hemi-BABIM-Zn2+ (where BABIM is bis(5-amidino-2-benzimidazolyl)methane, keto-BABIM is bis(5-amidino-2-benzimidazolyl)methane ketone, and hemi-BABIM is (5-amidino-2-benzimidazolyl)(2-benzimidazolyl)methane), and compare them with the corresponding trypsin-inhibitor-Zn2+ complexes. Inhibitor binding is mediated by a Zn ion tetrahedrally coordinated by two benzimidazole nitrogen atoms of the inhibitor, by N(epsilon2)His57, and by O(gamma)Ser195. The structures of Zn2+-free trypsin-BABIM and -hemi-BABIM were also determined at selected pH values for comparison with the corresponding Zn2+-mediated complexes. To assess some of the physiological parameters important for harnessing Zn2+ as a co-inhibitor, crystal structures at multiple pH and [Zn2+] values were determined for trypsin-keto-BABIM. The Kdvalue of Zn2+ for the binary trypsin-keto-BABIM complex was estimated to be <12 nM at pH 7.06 by crystallographic determination of the occupancy of bound Zn2+ in trypsin-keto-BABIM crystals soaked at this pH in synthetic mother liquor containing inhibitor and 100 nM Zn2+. In synthetic mother liquor saturated in Zn2+, trypsin-bound keto-BABIM is unhydrated at pH 9.00 and 9.93, and has an sp2 hybridized ketone carbon bridging the 5-amidinobenzimidazoles, whereas at pH 7.00 and 8.00 it undergoes hydration and a change in geometry upon addition of water to the bridging carbonyl group. To show how Zn2+ could be recruited as a co-inhibitor of other enzymes, a method was developed for locating in protein crystals Zn2+ binding sites where design of Zn2+-mediated ligands can be attempted. Thus, by soaking trypsin crystals in high concentrations of Zn2+ in the absence of a molecular inhibitor, the site where Zn2+ mediates binding of BABIM and analogs was identified, as well as another Zn2+ binding site.
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