Crystal structures of acutolysin A, a three-disulfide hemorrhagic zinc metalloproteinase from the snake venom of Agkistrodon acutus.Gong, W., Zhu, X., Liu, S., Teng, M., Niu, L.
(1998) J Mol Biol 283: 657-668
- PubMed: 9784374
- DOI: 10.1006/jmbi.1998.2110
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
- Crystallization and Preliminary X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Haehorrhagin I from the Snake Venom of Agkistrodon Acutus
Gong, W., Zhu, X., Niu, L., Teng, M.
(1996) Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 52: 201
Acutolysin A alias AaHI, a 22 kDa hemorrhagic toxin isolated from the snake venom of Agkistrodon acutus, is a member of the adamalysin subfamily of the metzincin family and is a snake venom zinc metalloproteinase possessing only one catalytic domain. Acutolysin A was found to have a high-activity and a low-activity under weakly alkaline and acidic conditions, respectively ...
Acutolysin A alias AaHI, a 22 kDa hemorrhagic toxin isolated from the snake venom of Agkistrodon acutus, is a member of the adamalysin subfamily of the metzincin family and is a snake venom zinc metalloproteinase possessing only one catalytic domain. Acutolysin A was found to have a high-activity and a low-activity under weakly alkaline and acidic conditions, respectively. With the adamalysin II structure as the initial trial-and-error model, the crystal structures were solved to the final crystallographic R-factors of 0. 168 and 0.171, against the diffraction data of crystals grown under pH 5.0 and pH 7.5 conditions to 1.9 A and 1.95 A resolution, respectively. One zinc ion, binding in the active-site, one structural calcium ion and some water molecules were localized in both of the structures. The catalytic zinc ion is coordinated in a tetrahedral manner with one catalytic water molecule anchoring to an intermediate glutamic acid residue (Glu143) and three imidazole Nepsilon2 atoms of His142, His146 and His152 in the highly conserved sequence H142E143XXH146XXGXXH152. There are two new disulfide bridges (Cys157-Cys181 and Cys159-Cys164) in acutolysin A in addition to the highly conserved disulfide bridge Cys117-Cys197. The calcium ion occurs on the molecular surface. The superposition showed that there was no significant conformational changes between the two structures except for a few slight changes of some flexible residue side-chains on the molecular surface, terminal residues and the active-site cleft. The average contact distance between the catalytic water molecule and oxygen atoms of the Glu143 carboxylate group in the weakly alkaline structure was also found to be closer than that in the weakly acidic structure. By comparing the available structural information of the members of the adamalysin subfamily, it seems that, when lowering the pH value, the polarization capability of the Glu143 carboxylate group to the catalytic water molecule become weaker, which might be the structural reason why the snake venom metalloproteinases are inactive or have a low activity under acidic conditions.
Department of Molecular Biology and Cell Biology and Laboratory of Structural Biology, School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026, P.R. China.