Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.70 Å
  • R-Value Work: 0.170 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.170 

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Crystallographic studies of isosteric NAD analogues bound to alcohol dehydrogenase: specificity and substrate binding in two ternary complexes.

Li, H.Hallows, W.H.Punzi, J.S.Pankiewicz, K.W.Watanabe, K.A.Goldstein, B.M.

(1994) Biochemistry 33: 11734-11744

  • DOI: 10.1021/bi00205a009
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    1ADC, 1ADB

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • CNAD (5-beta-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is an isosteric C-glycosidic analogue of NAD(H) containing a neutral pyridine ring. CPAD (5-beta-D-ribofuranosylpicolinamide adenine dinucleotide) is a closely related pyridine-containing ...

    CNAD (5-beta-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is an isosteric C-glycosidic analogue of NAD(H) containing a neutral pyridine ring. CPAD (5-beta-D-ribofuranosylpicolinamide adenine dinucleotide) is a closely related pyridine-containing analogue with the pyridine nitrogen on the opposite side of the ring. CNAD is a potent and specific inhibitor of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (LADH), binding with a dissociation constant in the nanomolar range. CPAD binds LADH with an affinity comparable to that of NAD. Crystal structures of CNAD and CPAD bound to LADH are presented at 2.4 and 2.7 A, respectively. The two complexes are isomorphous, crystallizing in the triclinic system with cell dimensions different from those seen in previous ternary LADH complexes. Structures were solved using the molecular replacement method and refined to crystallographic R values of 18% (CNAD) and 17% (CPAD). Both inhibitors bind to the "closed" form of LADH in the normal cofactor-binding cleft. The conformation of LADH-bound CPAD closely mimics that of LADH-bound NAD(H). The data suggest that alcohol substrate binds directly to the catalytic zinc atom. In the CNAD complex, the pyridine nitrogen replaces alcohol as the fourth coordination ligand to the active site zinc atom, while all other polar interactions remain the same as those of bound NAD(H). The zinc-nitrogen ligand explains the high affinity of CNAD for LADH.

    Related Citations: 
    • Interdomain Motion in Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase. Structural and Energetic Analysis of the Hinge Bending Mode
      Colonna-Cesari, F., Perahia, D., Karplus, M., Eklund, H., Branden, C.I., Tapia, O.
      (1986) J Biol Chem 261: 15273
    • Crystallographic Investigations of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Binding to Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase
      Eklund, H., Samama, J.-P., Jones, T.A.
      (1984) Biochemistry 23: 5982
    • Crystal Structures of the Active Site in Specifically Metal-Depleted and Cobalt-Substituted Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase Derivatives
      Schneider, G., Eklund, H., Cedergren-Zeppezauer, E., Zeppezauer, M.
      (1983) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 80: 5289
    • Three-Dimensional Structure of Isonicotinimidylated Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase
      Plapp, B.V., Eklund, H., Jones, T.A., Branden, C.-I.
      (1983) J Biol Chem 258: 5537
    • Crystal-Structure Determination of Reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Complex with Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase Maintained in its Apo Conformation by Zinc-Bound Imidazole
      Cedergren-Zeppezauer, E.
      (1983) Biochemistry 22: 5761
    • Binding of Substrate in a Ternary Complex of Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase
      Eklund, H., Plapp, B.V., Samama, J.-P., Branden, C.-I.
      (1982) J Biol Chem 257: 14349
    • Crystal Structure Determinations of Coenzyme Analogue and Substrate Complexes of Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase. Binding of 1,4,5,6-Tetrahydronicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide and Trans-4-(N,N-Dimethylamino)Cinnamaldehyde to the Enzyme
      Cedergren-Zeppezauer, E., Samama, J.-P., Eklund, H.
      (1982) Biochemistry 21: 4895
    • Pyrazole Binding in Crystalline Binary and Ternary Complexes with Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase
      Eklund, H., Samama, J.-P., Wallen, L.
      (1982) Biochemistry 21: 4858
    • 5-Methylnicotinamide-Adenine Dinucleotide. Kinetic Investigation with Major and Minor Isoenzymes of Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Structural Determination of its Binary Complex with Alcohol Dehydrogenase
      Samama, J.-P., Wrixon, A.D., Biellmann, J.-F.
      (1981) Eur J Biochem 118: 479
    • Structural Differences between Apo-and Holoenzyme of Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase
      Eklund, H., Branden, C.-I.
      (1979) J Biol Chem 254: 3458
    • X-Ray Studies of the Binding of Cibacron Blue F3Ga to Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase
      Biellmann, J.-F., Samama, J.-P., Branden, C.I., Eklund, H.
      (1979) Eur J Biochem 102: 107
    • Crystallography of Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase Complexed with Substrates
      Plapp, B.V., Eklund, H., Branden, C.-I.
      (1978) J Mol Biol 122: 23
    • Crystallization of Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase Activated by the Modification of Amino Groups
      Plapp, B.V., Zeppezauer, E., Branden, C.-I.
      (1978) J Mol Biol 119: 451
    • Subunit Conformation of Yeast Alcohol Dehydrogenase
      Jornvall, H., Eklund, H., Branden, C.-I.
      (1978) J Biol Chem 253: 8414
    • The Crystal Structure of Complexes between Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase and the Coenzyme Analogues 3-Iodopyridine-Adenine Dinucleotide and Pyridine-Adenine Dinucleotide
      Samama, J.-P., Zeppezauer, E., Biellmann, J.-F., Branden, C.-I.
      (1977) Eur J Biochem 81: 403
    • X-Ray Investigation of the Binding of 1,10-Phenanthroline and Imidazole to Horse-Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase
      Boiwe, T., Branden, C.-I.
      (1977) Eur J Biochem 77: 173
    • Three-Dimensional Structure of Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase at 2.4 Angstroms Resolution
      Eklund, H., Nordstrom, B., Zeppezauer, E., Soderlund, G., Ohlsson, I., Boiwe, T., Soderberg, B.-O., Tapia, O., Branden, C.-I., Akeson, A.
      (1976) J Mol Biol 102: 27
    • Structural Comparisons of Mammalian, Yeast and Bacillar Alcohol Dehydrogenases
      Eklund, H., Branden, C.-I., Jornvall, H.
      (1976) J Mol Biol 102: 61
    • The Binding of Nucleotides to Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase
      Nordstrom, B., Branden, C.-I.
      (1975) Structure And Conformation Of Nucleic Acids And Protein-nucleic Acid Interactions : Proceedings Of The Fourth Annual Harry Steenbock Symposium, June 16-19, 1974, Madison, Wisconsin --: 387
    • Alcohol Dehydrogenases
      Branden, C.-I., Jornvall, H., Eklund, H., Furugren, B.
      (1975) The Enzymes,third Edition 11: 103
    • The Conformation of Adenosine Diphosphoribose and 8-Bromoadenosine Diphosphoribose When Bound to Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase
      Abdallah, M.A., Biellmann, J.-F., Nordstrom, B., Branden, C.-I.
      (1975) Eur J Biochem 50: 475
    • The Structure of Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase
      Eklund, H., Nordstrom, B., Zeppezauer, E., Soderlund, G., Ohlsson, I., Boiwe, T., Branden, C.-I.
      (1974) FEBS Lett 44: 200
    • Structural and Functional Similarities within the Coenzyme Binding Domains of Dehydrogenases
      Ohlsson, I., Nordstrom, B., Branden, C.-I.
      (1974) J Mol Biol 89: 339
    • Binding of Salicylate in the Adenosine-Binding Pocket of Dehydrogenases
      Einarsson, R., Eklund, H., Zeppezauer, E., Boiwe, T., Branden, C.-I.
      (1974) Eur J Biochem 49: 41
    • Structure of Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase at 2.9-Angstrom Resolution
      Branden, C.-I., Eklund, H., Nordstrom, B., Boiwe, T., Soderlund, G., Zeppezauer, E., Ohlsson, I., Akeson, A.
      (1973) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 70: 2439
    • Structure of Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase. I. Structural Symmetry and Conformational Changes
      Branden, C.-I.
      (1965) Arch Biochem Biophys 112: 215

    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Biophysics, University of Rochester Medical Center, New York 14642.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASEAB374Equus caballusMutation(s): 0 
Find proteins for P00327 (Equus caballus)
Explore P00327 
Go to UniProtKB:  P00327
Protein Feature View
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 3 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
Query on PAD

Download CCD File 
A, B
C21 H27 N7 O14 P2
 Ligand Interaction
Query on ZN

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A, B
 Ligand Interaction
Query on EOH

Download CCD File 
A, B
C2 H6 O
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.70 Å
  • R-Value Work: 0.170 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.170 
  • Space Group: P 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 51.9α = 103.1
b = 44.8β = 87.8
c = 93γ = 70.4
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
X-PLORmodel building

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report

Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 1995-06-03
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-03-03
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2017-11-29
    Changes: Derived calculations, Other