Chemical Component Summary

NameAZITHROMYCIN
Identifiers(2R,3S,4R,5R,6R,8R,10R,11R,12S,13S,14R)-11-[(2S,3R,4S,6R)-4-dimethylamino-3-hydroxy-6-methyl-oxan-2-yl]oxy-2-ethyl-3,4,10-trihydroxy-13-[(2R,4R,5S,6S)-5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-4,6-dimethyl-oxan-2-yl]oxy-3,5,6,8,10,12,14-heptamethyl-1-oxa-6-azacyclopentadecan-15-one
FormulaC38 H72 N2 O12
Molecular Weight748.98
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESCC[C@H]1OC(=O)[C@H](C)[C@@H](O[C@H]2C[C@@](C)(OC)[C@@H](O)[C@H](C)O2)[C@H](C)[C@@H](O[C@@H]3O[C@H](C)C[C@@H]([C@H]3O)N(C)C)[C@](C)(O)C[C@@H](C)CN(C)[C@H](C)[C@@H](O)[C@]1(C)O
InChIInChI=1S/C38H72N2O12/c1-15-27-38(10,46)31(42)24(6)40(13)19-20(2)17-36(8,45)33(52-35-29(41)26(39(11)12)16-21(3)48-35)22(4)30(23(5)34(44)50-27)51-28-18-37(9,47-14)32(43)25(7)49-28/h20-33,35,41-43,45-46H,15-19H2,1-14H3/t20-,21-,22+,23-,24-,25+,26+,27-,28+,29-,30+,31-,32+,33-,35+,36-,37-,38-/m1/s1
InChIKeyMQTOSJVFKKJCRP-BICOPXKESA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count124
Chiral Atom Count18
Bond Count126
Aromatic Bond Count0

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00207 
NameAzithromycin
Groupsapproved
DescriptionAzithromycin is a broad-spectrum macrolide antibiotic with a long half-life and a high degree of tissue penetration [A174172]. It was initially approved by the FDA in 1991 [A174175]. It is primarily used for the treatment of respiratory, enteric and genitourinary infections and may be used instead of other macrolides for some sexually transmitted and enteric infections. It is structurally related to erythromycin [A174169]. Azithromycin [9-deoxo-9a-aza-9a-methyl-9a-homoerythromycin] is a part of the _azalide_ subclass of macrolides, and contains a 15-membered ring, with a methyl-substituted nitrogen instead of a carbonyl group at the 9a position on the aglycone ring, which allows for the prevention of its metabolism. This differentiates azithromycin from other types of macrolides [A174175]. In March 2020, a small study was funded by the French government to investigate the treatment of COVID-19 with a combination of azithromycin and the anti-malaria drug [hydroxychloroquine]. The results were positive, all patients taking the combination were virologically cured within 6 days of treatment, however, larger studies are required.[A192546]
Synonyms
  • Azithromycinum
  • Azithromycine
  • Azitromicina
  • Azithromycin
  • Azithromycin dihydrate
Brand Names
  • Novo-azithromycin Pediatric
  • Zithromax Cap 250mg
  • Ava-azithromycin
  • Riva-azithromycin
  • Ag-azithromycin
IndicationAzithromycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria in order to prevent the development antimicrobial resistance and maintain the efficacy of azithromycin [FDA label]. Azithromycin is indicated for the treatment of patients with mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of the microorganisms listed in the specific conditions below. Recommended dosages, duration of therapy and considerations for various patient populations may vary among these infections. Refer to the FDA label and "Indications" section of this drug entry for detailed information [FDA label]. **Adults**: Acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to _Haemophilus influenzae_, _Moraxella catarrhalis_ or _Streptococcus pneumoniae_ Acute bacterial sinusitis due to _Haemophilus influenzae_, _Moraxella catarrhalis_ or _Streptococcus pneumoniae_ Community-acquired pneumonia due to _Chlamydophila pneumoniae_, _Haemophilus influenzae_, _Mycoplasma pneumoniae_ or _Streptococcus pneumoniae_ in patients appropriate for oral therapy Pharyngitis/tonsillitis caused by _Streptococcus pyogenes_ as an alternative to first-line therapy in individuals who cannot use first-line therapy. Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections due to _Staphylococcus aureus_, _Streptococcus pyogenes_, or _Streptococcus agalactiae_. Abscesses usually require surgical drainage. Urethritis and cervicitis due to _Chlamydia trachomatis_ or _Neisseria gonorrhoeae_. Genital ulcer disease in men due to _Haemophilus ducreyi_ (chancroid). Due to the small number of women included in clinical trials, the efficacy of azithromycin in the treatment of chancroid in women has not been established. **Pediatric Patients** Acute otitis media caused by _Haemophilus influenzae_, _Moraxella catarrhalis_ or _Streptococcus pneumoniae_ Community-acquired pneumonia due to _Chlamydophila pneumoniae_, _Haemophilus influenzae_, _Mycoplasma pneumoniae_ or _Streptococcus pneumoniae_ in patients appropriate for oral therapy. Pharyngitis/tonsillitis caused by _Streptococcus pyogenes_ as an alternative to first-line therapy in individuals who cannot use first-line therapy.
Categories
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Antibacterials for Systemic Use
  • Antiinfectives for Systemic Use
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2A6 Inhibitors
ATC-Code
  • J01RA07
  • S01AA26
  • J01FA10
CAS number83905-01-5

Drug Targets

NameTarget SequencePharmacological ActionActions
23S ribosomal RNA-unknowninhibitor
Protein-arginine deiminase type-4MAQGTLIRVTPEQPTHAVCVLGTLTQLDICSSAPEDCTSFSINASPGVVV...unknowninhibitor
Cytochrome P450 3A4MALIPDLAMETWLLLAVSLVLLYLYGTHSHGLFKKLGIPGPTPLPFLGNI...unknownsubstrate,inhibitor
P-glycoprotein 1MDLEGDRNGGAKKKNFFKLNNKSEKDKKEKKPTVSVFSMFRYSNWLDKLY...unknownsubstrate,inhibitor
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1MLEKFCNSTFWNSSFLDSPEADLPLCFEQTVLVWIPLGYLWLLAPWQLLH...unknownsubstrate,inhibitor
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682

Related Resource References

Resource NameReference
PubChem447043
ChEBICHEBI:2955
ChEMBLCHEMBL529