MXD as a free ligand exists in 2 entries. Examples include: 4K7A 3B6H

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Chemical Component Summary

FormulaC9 H15 N5 O
Molecular Weight209.25
Isomeric SMILESNc1cc(nc(N)[n+]1[O-])N1CCCCC1

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count30
Chiral Atom Count0
Chiral Atomsn/a
Bond Count31
Aromatic Bond Count6
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00350 Different stereochemistry
DescriptionA potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (vasodilator agents) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in blood pressure. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p371)
  • 2,4-Diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine 3-oxide
  • 6-Piperidin-1-ylpyrimidine-2,4-diamine 3-oxide
  • Alostil
  • Apo-gain
  • Loniten
Brand Names
  • Apo-gain Liq 20mg/ml
  • Boost Regrowth for Women
  • Bosley Professional Strength Hair Regrowth Treatment R
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor the treatment of severe hypertension and in the topical treatment (regrowth) of androgenic alopecia in males and females and stabilisation of hair loss in patients with androgenic alopecia.
PharmacologyMinoxidil is an orally effective direct acting peripheral vasodilator that reduces elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure by decreasing peripheral vascular resistance. Minoxidil is also used topically to treat androgenetic alopecia. Microcirculatory blood flow in animals is enhanced or maintained in all systemic vascular beds. In man, forearm and renal vascular resistance decline; forearm blood flow increases while renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate are preserved. The predominant site of minoxidil action is arterial. Venodilation does not occur with minoxidil; thus, postural hypotension is unusual with its administration. The antihypertensive activity of minoxidil is due to its sulphate metabolite, minoxidil sulfate.
Mechanism of actionMinoxidil is thought to promote the survival of human dermal papillary cells (DPCs) or hair cells by activating both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt and by preventing cell death by increasing the ratio of BCl<sup>-</sup>2/Bax. Minoxidil may stimulate the growth of human hairs by prolonging anagen through these proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on DPCs. Minoxidil, when used as a vasodilator, acts by opening adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. This vasodilation may also improve the viability of hair cells or hair follicles.
Route of administration
  • Oral
  • Topical
  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Arteriolar Smooth Muscle, Agents Acting On
  • Cardiovascular Agents
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Chemical Actions and Uses
  • D11AX01
  • C02DC01
  • 24:08.20
  • 84:92.00
CAS number38304-91-5
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682