Chemical Component Summary

Name(-)-GALANTHAMINE
Identifiersn/a
FormulaC17 H21 N O3
Molecular Weight287.35
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESCOc1ccc2CN(C)CC[C@@]34C=C[C@H](O)C[C@@H]3Oc1c24
InChIInChI=1S/C17H21NO3/c1-18-8-7-17-6-5-12(19)9-14(17)21-16-13(20-2)4-3-11(10-18)15(16)17/h3-6,12,14,19H,7-10H2,1-2H3/t12-,14-,17-/m0/s1
InChIKeyASUTZQLVASHGKV-JDFRZJQESA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count42
Chiral Atom Count3
Chiral AtomsC3, C41, C42
Bond Count45
Aromatic Bond Count6
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00674 Different stereochemistry
NameGalantamine
Groupsapproved
DescriptionA benzazepine derived from norbelladine. It is found in galanthus and other amaryllidaceae. Galantamine is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to reverse the muscular effects of gallamine triethiodide and tubocurarine, and has been studied as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.
Synonyms
  • (-)-Galanthamine
  • Galanthamine
SaltsGalantamine hydrobromide
Brand Names
  • Apo-galantamine
  • Auro-galantamine ER
  • Galantamine
  • Galantamine ER
  • Galantamine Hydrobromide
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Has also been investigated in patients with mild cognitive impairment who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease.
PharmacologyGalantamine is a parasympathomimetic, specifically, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor. It is indicated for the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type. An early pathophysiological feature of Alzheimer's disease that is associated with memory loss and cognitive deficits is a deficiency of acetylcholine as a result of selective loss of cholinergic neurons in the cerebral cortex, nucleus basalis, and hippocampus. Galantamine is postulated to exert its therapeutic effect by enhancing cholinergic function. This is accomplished by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine through reversible inhibition of its hydrolysis by acetylcholinesterase. If this proposed mechanism of action is correct, Galantamine's effect may lessen as the disease progresses and fewer cholinergic neurons remain functionally intact. There is no evidence that Galantamine alters the course of the underlying dementing process.
Mechanism of actionGalantamine is a phenanthrene alkaloid and a reversible, competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It is not structurally related to other acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Galantamine's proposed mechanism of action involves the reversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, which prevents the hydrolysis of acetycholine, leading to an increased concentration of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses. Galantamine also binds allosterically with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and may possibly potentiate the action of agonists (such as acetylcholine) at these receptors.
Route of administrationOral
Categories
  • Alkaloids
  • Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids
  • Anti-Dementia Drugs
  • Autonomic Agents
  • Benzazepines
ATC-CodeN06DA04
AHFS-Code12:04.00
CAS number357-70-0

Drug Targets

NameSequence SearchPharmacological ActionActions
CholinesteraseMHSKVTIICIRFLFWFLLLCMLIGKSHTEDDIIIATKNGKVRGMNLTVFG...unknowninhibitor
Acetylcholine receptor subunit deltaMEGPVLTLGLLAALAVCGSWGLNEEERLIRHLFQEKGYNKELRPVAHKEE...unknownallosteric modulator
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-6MLTSKGQGFLHGGLCLWLCVFTPFFKGCVGCATEERLFHKLFSHYNQFIR...unknownallosteric modulator
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-9MNWSHSCISFCWIYFAASRLRAAETADGKYAQKLFNDLFEDYSNALRPVE...unknownallosteric modulator
Acetylcholine receptor subunit alphaMEPWPLLLLFSLCSAGLVLGSEHETRLVAKLFKDYSSVVRPVEDHRQVVE...unknownallosteric modulator
View More
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682