Chemical Component Summary

Name8-DEETHYL-8-[BUT-3-ENYL]-ASCOMYCIN
Identifiersn/a
FormulaC44 H69 N O12
Molecular Weight804.02
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESCO[C@@H]1C[C@@H](CC[C@H]1O)\C=C(/C)[C@H]1OC(=O)[C@@H]2CCCCN2C(=O)C(=O)[C@]2(O)O[C@@H]([C@H](C[C@H]2C)OC)[C@H](C[C@@H](C)C\C(C)=C\[C@@H](CC=C)C(=O)C[C@H](O)[C@H]1C)OC
InChIInChI=1S/C44H69NO12/c1-10-13-31-19-25(2)18-26(3)20-37(54-8)40-38(55-9)22-28(5)44(52,57-40)41(49)42(50)45-17-12-11-14-32(45)43(51)56-39(29(6)34(47)24-35(31)48)27(4)21-30-15-16-33(46)36(23-30)53-7/h10,19,21,26,28-34,36-40,46-47,52H,1,11-18,20,22-24H2,2-9H3/b25-19+,27-21+/t26-,28+,29+,30-,31+,32-,33+,34-,36+,37-,38-,39+,40+,44+/m0/s1
InChIKeyQJJXYPPXXYFBGM-LFZNUXCKSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count126
Chiral Atom Count14
Chiral AtomsC10, C11, C13, C14, C15, C17, C2, C21, C24, C25, C26, C29, C31, C32
Bond Count129
Aromatic Bond Count0
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00864 Different stereochemistry
NameTacrolimus
Groups
  • approved
  • investigational
DescriptionTacrolimus (also FK-506 or Fujimycin) is an immunosuppressive drug whose main use is after organ transplant to reduce the activity of the patient's immune system and so the risk of organ rejection. It is also used in a topical preparation in the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis, severe refractory uveitis after bone marrow transplants, and the skin condition vitiligo. It was discovered in 1984 from the fermentation broth of a Japanese soil sample that contained the bacteria Streptomyces tsukubaensis. Tacrolimus is chemically known as a macrolide. It reduces peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity by binding to the immunophilin FKBP-12 (FK506 binding protein) creating a new complex. This FKBP12-FK506 complex interacts with and inhibits calcineurin thus inhibiting both T-lymphocyte signal transduction and IL-2 transcription.
Synonyms
  • Anhydrous tacrolimus
  • Tacrolimus anhydrous
  • Tacrolimus, anhydrous
SaltsTacrolimus hydrate
Brand Names
  • Ach-tacrolimus
  • Advagraf
  • Astagraf XL
  • Envarsus XR
  • Hecoria
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor use after allogenic organ transplant to reduce the activity of the patient's immune system and so the risk of organ rejection. It was first approved by the FDA in 1994 for use in liver transplantation, this has been extended to include kidney, heart, small bowel, pancreas, lung, trachea, skin, cornea, and limb transplants. It has also been used in a topical preparation in the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis.
PharmacologyTacrolimus is a macrolide antibiotic. It acts by reducing peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity by binding to the immunophilin FKBP-12 (FK506 binding protein) creating a new complex. This inhibits both T-lymphocyte signal transduction and IL-2 transcription. Although this activity is similar to cyclosporine studies have shown that the incidence of acute rejection is reduced by tacrolimus use over cyclosporine. Tacrolimus has also been shown to be effective in the topical treatment of eczema, particularly atopic eczema. It suppresses inflammation in a similar way to steroids, but is not as powerful. An important dermatological advantage of tacrolimus is that it can be used directly on the face; topical steroids cannot be used on the face, as they thin the skin dramatically there. On other parts of the body, topical steroid are generally a better treatment.
Mechanism of actionThe mechanism of action of tacrolimus in atopic dermatitis is not known. While the following have been observed, the clinical significance of these observations in atopic dermatitis is not known. It has been demonstrated that tacrolimus inhibits T-lymphocyte activation by first binding to an intracellular protein, FKBP-12. A complex of tacrolimus-FKBP-12, calcium, calmodulin, and calcineurin is then formed and the phosphatase activity of calcineurin is inhibited. This prevents the dephosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NF-AT), a nuclear component thought to initiate gene transcription for the formation of lymphokines. Tacrolimus also inhibits the transcription for genes which encode IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, GM-CSF, and TNF-, all of which are involved in the early stages of T-cell activation. Additionally, tacrolimus has been shown to inhibit the release of pre-formed mediators from skin mast cells and basophils, and to downregulate the expression of FceRI on Langerhans cells.
Route of administration
  • Cutaneous
  • Intravenous
  • Oral
  • Topical
Categories
  • Antineoplastic and Immunomodulating Agents
  • Calcineurin Inhibitors
  • Chemical Actions and Uses
  • Combined Inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors
ATC-Code
  • D11AH01
  • L04AD02
AHFS-Code
  • 84:92.00
  • 92:00.00
CAS number104987-11-3

Drug Targets

NameSequence SearchPharmacological ActionActions
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase FKBP1AMGVQVETISPGDGRTFPKRGQTCVVHYTGMLEDGKKFDSSRDRNKPFKFM...yesinhibitor
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682