Chemical Component Summary

Identifiers2-propylpentanoic acid
FormulaC8 H16 O2
Molecular Weight144.21

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count26
Chiral Atom Count0
Chiral Atomsn/a
Bond Count25
Aromatic Bond Count0
Leaving AtomsO2

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00313 Different stereochemistry
NameValproic Acid
  • approved
  • investigational
DescriptionValproic acid, supplied as the sodium salt valproate semisodium or divalproex sodium, is a fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels. Typically supplied in the sodium salt form (CAS number: 76584-70-8). Valproic Acid is also a histone deacetylase inhibitor and is under investigation for treatment of HIV and various cancers.
  • 2-n-propyl-n-valeric acid
  • 2-propyl-pentanoic acid
  • 2-Propylpentanoic Acid
  • 2-Propylvaleric Acid
  • 4-heptanecarboxylic acid
  • Divalproex sodium
  • Valproate sodium
Brand Names
  • Apo-divalproex
  • Apo-valproic
  • Apo-valproic Syrup
  • Depacon
  • Depakene
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor treatment and management of seizure disorders, mania, and prophylactic treatment of migraine headache. In epileptics, valproic acid is used to control absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal), complex partial seizures, and the seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
PharmacologyThe relationship between plasma concentration and clinical response is not well documented. One contributing factor is the nonlinear, concentration dependent protein binding of valproate which affects the clearance of the drug. Thus, monitoring of total serum valproate cannot provide a reliable index of the bioactive valproate species. For patients with epilepsy, the therapeutic range is commonly considered to be 50 to 100 mcg/mL of total valproate. However, patients may be controlled at lower or higher doses.
Mechanism of actionValproic Acid dissociates to the valproate ion in the gastrointestinal tract and then binds to and inhibits GABA transaminase. The drug's anticonvulsant activity may be related to increased brain concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, by inhibiting enzymes that catabolize GABA or block the reuptake of GABA into glia and nerve endings. Valproic Acid may also work by suppressing repetitive neuronal firing through inhibition of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. It is also a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Valproic acid has also been shown to be an inhibitor of an enzyme called histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). HDAC1 is needed for HIV to remain in infected cells. A study published in August 2005 revealed that patients treated with valproic acid in addition to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) showed a 75% reduction in latent HIV infection.
Route of administration
  • Intravenous
  • Oral
  • Acids, Acyclic
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Antimanic Agents
  • Carboxylic Acids
  • Central Nervous System Agents
CAS number99-66-1
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682