Chemical Component Summary

NameALENDRONATE
Identifiers(4-amino-1-hydroxy-1-phosphono-butyl)phosphonic acid
FormulaC4 H13 N O7 P2
Molecular Weight249.10
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESNCCCC(O)(P(O)(O)=O)P(O)(O)=O
InChIInChI=1S/C4H13NO7P2/c5-3-1-2-4(6,13(7,8)9)14(10,11)12/h6H,1-3,5H2,(H2,7,8,9)(H2,10,11,12)
InChIKeyOGSPWJRAVKPPFI-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count27
Chiral Atom Count0
Chiral Atomsn/a
Bond Count26
Aromatic Bond Count0
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00630 Different stereochemistry
NameAlendronic acid
Groupsapproved
DescriptionAlendronic acid (alendronate) is a nitrogen-containing, second generation bisphosphonate. Bisphosphonates were first used to treat Paget’s disease in 1971. This class of medications is comprised of inorganic pyrophosphate analogues that contain non-hydrolyzable P-C-P bonds. Similar to other bisphosphonates, alendronate has a high affinity for bone mineral and is taken up during osteoclast resorption. Alendronate inhibits farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase, one of the enzymes in the mevalonic acid pathway involved in producing isoprenoid compounds that are essential for post-translational modification of small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins, such as Rho, Ras and Rab. Inhibition of this process interferes with osteoclast function and survival. Alendronate is used for the treatment of osteoporosis and Paget’s disease.
Synonyms
  • (4-amino-1-hydroxybutane-1,1-diyl)bis(phosphonic acid)
  • (4-amino-1-hydroxybutylidene)bisphosphonic acid
  • 4-amino-1-hydroxybutane-1,1-diphosphonic acid
  • ABDP
  • Acide Alendronique
Salts
  • Alendronate calcium
  • Alendronate sodium
  • Alendronate sodium anhydrous
Brand Names
  • Accel-alendronate
  • Ach-alendronate
  • Act Alendronate
  • Alendronate
  • Alendronate Sodium
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in women and Paget's disease of bone in both men and women.
PharmacologyAlendronate, a second-generation bisphosphonate is the first member of a group of drugs which strengthens bone. Alendronate is used to reduce hypercalcemia in tumor-induced bone disease, to treat corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis and Paget's disease, and to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
Mechanism of actionThe action of Alendronate on bone tissue is based partly on its affinity for hydroxyapatite, which is part of the mineral matrix of bone. Alendronate also targets farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) synthase. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (such as pamidronate, alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate and zoledronate) appear to act as analogues of isoprenoid diphosphate lipids, thereby inhibiting FPP synthase, an enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. Inhibition of this enzyme in osteoclasts prevents the biosynthesis of isoprenoid lipids (FPP and GGPP) that are essential for the post-translational farnesylation and geranylgeranylation of small GTPase signalling proteins. This activity inhibits osteoclast activity and reduces bone resorption and turnover. In postmenopausal women, it reduces the elevated rate of bone turnover, leading to, on average, a net gain in bone mass.
Route of administrationOral
Categories
  • Bone Density Conservation Agents
  • Chemical Actions and Uses
  • Diphosphonates
  • Drugs Affecting Bone Structure and Mineralization
  • Drugs for Treatment of Bone Diseases
ATC-Code
  • M05BA04
  • M05BB05
  • M05BB03
  • M05BB06
AHFS-Code92:00.00
CAS number66376-36-1
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682