E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RING2 - Q99496 (RING2_HUMAN)


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E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediates monoubiquitination of 'Lys-119' of histone H2A (H2AK119Ub), thereby playing a central role in histone code and gene regulation (PubMed:15386022, PubMed:16359901, PubMed:25519132, PubMed:21772249, PubMed:25355358, PubMed:26151332). H2AK119Ub gives a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression and participates in X chromosome inactivation of female mammals. May be involved in the initiation of both imprinted and random X inactivation (By similarity). Essential component of a Polycomb group (PcG) multiprotein PRC1-like complex, a complex class required to maintain the transcriptionally repressive state of many genes, including Hox genes, throughout development (PubMed:16359901, PubMed:26151332). PcG PRC1 complex acts via chromatin remodeling and modification of histones, rendering chromatin heritably changed in its expressibility (PubMed:26151332). E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity is enhanced by BMI1/PCGF4 (PubMed:21772249). Acts as the main E3 ubiquitin ligase on histone H2A of the PRC1 complex, while RING1 may rather act as a modulator of RNF2/RING2 activity (Probable). Association with the chromosomal DNA is cell-cycle dependent. In resting B- and T-lymphocytes, interaction with AURKB leads to block its activity, thereby maintaining transcription in resting lymphocytes (By similarity). UniProt
Catalytic Activity
S-ubiquitinyl-[E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme]-L-cysteine + [acceptor protein]-L-lysine = [E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme]-L-cysteine + N6-ubiquitinyl-[acceptor protein]-L-lysine. UniProt
Pathway Maps
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Subunit Structure
Component of chromatin-associated Polycomb (PcG) complexes. Component of a number of PRC1-like complexes; these complexes contain either the polycomb group ring finger protein PCGF1, or PCGF2, or PCGF3, or PCGF4, or PCGF5, or PCGF6 (PubMed:12167701, PubMed:15386022, PubMed:19636380, PubMed:21282530, PubMed:26687479, PubMed:26151332). Part of a complex that contains RNF2, UB2D3 and BMI1; within that complex RNF2 and BMI1 form a tight heterodimer, where UB2D3 interacts only with RNF2 (PubMed:21772249, PubMed:25355358). The complex composed of RNF2, UB2D3 and BMI1 binds nucleosomes, and has activity only with nucleosomal histone H2A (PubMed:21772249). Part of a complex that contains PCGF5, RNF2 and UBE2D3 (PubMed:26151332). Part of a complex that contains AUTS2, PCGF5, RNF2, CSNK2B AND RYBP (PubMed:25519132). Interacts with RYBP, PCGF2, CBX4, CBX6, CBX7 and CBX8 (PubMed:19636380, PubMed:21282530, PubMed:19791798, PubMed:20696397). Interacts with RNF1/RING1, BMI1 and PHC2 (PubMed:15386022, PubMed:16714294). Interaction with RYBP and CBX7 is mutually exclusive; both compete for the same binding site on RNF2 (By similarity). Component of repressive BCOR complex containing a Polycomb group subcomplex at least composed of RYBP, PCGF1, BCOR and RING1 (PubMed:16943429). Interacts with CBX2 and PHC1. Interacts with CHTOP. Interacts with AURKB (By similarity). Part of the E2F6.com-1 complex in G0 phase composed of E2F6, MGA, MAX, TFDP1, CBX3, BAT8, EUHMTASE1, RNF1/RING1, RNF2/RING2, MBLR, L3MBTL2 and YAF2 (PubMed:12004135). Component of some MLL1/MLL complex, at least composed of the core components KMT2A/MLL1, ASH2L, HCFC1/HCF1, WDR5 and RBBP5, as well as the facultative components BAP18, CHD8, E2F6, HSP70, INO80C, KANSL1, LAS1L, MAX, MCRS1, MGA, MYST1/MOF, PELP1, PHF20, PRP31, RING2, RUVB1/TIP49A, RUVB2/TIP49B, SENP3, TAF1, TAF4, TAF6, TAF7, TAF9 and TEX10 (PubMed:15960975). Interacts with RYBP, HIP2 and TFCP2 (PubMed:11513855, PubMed:11865070, PubMed:20696397). Interacts with NUPR1 (PubMed:28720707). UniProt
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