Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein - Q63053 (ARC_RAT)


Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence  

Master regulator of synaptic plasticity that self-assembles into virion-like capsids that encapsulate RNAs and mediate intercellular RNA transfer in the nervous system (PubMed:29328916). ARC protein is released from neurons in extracellular vesicles that mediate the transfer of ARC mRNA into new target cells, where ARC mRNA can undergo activity-dependent translation (PubMed:29328916). ARC capsids are endocytosed and are able to transfer ARC mRNA into the cytoplasm of neurons (PubMed:29328916). Acts as a key regulator of synaptic plasticity: required for protein synthesis-dependent forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) and for the formation of long-term memory (PubMed:10818134, PubMed:17088211, PubMed:17088212, PubMed:17088213). Regulates synaptic plasticity by promoting endocytosis of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in response to synaptic activity: this endocytic pathway maintains levels of surface AMPARs in response to chronic changes in neuronal activity through synaptic scaling, thereby contributing to neuronal homeostasis (PubMed:17088211, PubMed:17088212). Acts as a postsynaptic mediator of activity-dependent synapse elimination in the developing cerebellum by mediating elimination of surplus climbing fiber synapses (PubMed:23791196). Accumulates at weaker synapses, probably to prevent their undesired enhancement (PubMed:22579289). This suggests that ARC-containing virion-like capsids may be required to eliminate synaptic material (PubMed:29328916). Required to transduce experience into long-lasting changes in visual cortex plasticity and for long-term memory (PubMed:10818134). Involved in postsynaptic trafficking and processing of amyloid-beta A4 (APP) via interaction with PSEN1 (By similarity). In addition to its role in synapses, also involved in the regulation of the immune system: specifically expressed in skin-migratory dendritic cells and regulates fast dendritic cell migration, thereby regulating T-cell activation. UniProt
Pathway Maps
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Subunit Structure
Homooligomer; homooligomerizes into virion-like capsids (PubMed:29328916). Interacts with SH3GL1/endophilin-2, SH3GL3/endophilin-3 and DNM2/DYN2 (PubMed:17088211). Interacts with CAMK2B (in the kinase inactive state); leading to target ARC to inactive synapses (PubMed:22579289). Interacts with PSEN1. UniProt
The protein is evolutionarily related to retrotransposon Gag proteins: it contains large N- and C-terminal domains that form a bi-lobar architecture similar to the capsid domain of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gag protein (PubMed:29328916, PubMed:25864631). It contains structural elements found within viral Gag polyproteins originated from the Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon family and retains the ability to form virion-like capsid structures that can mediate mRNA transfer between cells (PubMed:29328916). Tetrapod and fly Arc protein-coding genes originated independently from distinct lineages of Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons (PubMed:29328916). UniProt
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The PDB to UniProt mapping is based on the data provided by the EBI SIFTS project. See also Velankar et al., Nucleic Acids Research 33, D262-265 (2005).
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