Alpha-synuclein - P37840 (SYUA_HUMAN)

 

Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence  

 
Function
Neuronal protein that plays several roles in synaptic activity such as regulation of synaptic vesicle trafficking and subsequent neurotransmitter release. Participates as a monomer in synaptic vesicle exocytosis by enhancing vesicle priming, fusion and dilation of exocytotic fusion pores (PubMed:28288128, PubMed:30404828). Mechanistically, acts by increasing local Ca(2+) release from microdomains which is essential for the enhancement of ATP-induced exocytosis (PubMed:30404828). Acts also as a molecular chaperone in its multimeric membrane-bound state, assisting in the folding of synaptic fusion components called SNAREs (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein REceptors) at presynaptic plasma membrane in conjunction with cysteine string protein-alpha/DNAJC5 (PubMed:20798282). This chaperone activity is important to sustain normal SNARE-complex assembly during aging (PubMed:20798282). Plays also a role in the regulation of the dopamine neurotransmission by associating with the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and thereby modulating its activity (PubMed:26442590). UniProt
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Subunit Structure
Soluble monomer. Homotetramer (PubMed:21841800). A dynamic intracellular population of tetramers and monomers coexists normally and the tetramer plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis (PubMed:21841800). Interacts with UCHL1 (By similarity). Interacts with phospholipase D and histones. Interacts (via N-terminus) with synphilin-1/SNCAIP; this interaction promotes formation of SNCA inclusions in the cytoplasm (PubMed:19762560). Interacts with CALM1 (PubMed:23607618). Interacts with STXBP1; this interaction controls SNCA self-replicating aggregation (PubMed:27597756). Interacts with SNARE components VAMP2 and SNAP25; these interactions allows SNARE complex assembly and integrity (PubMed:20798282). Interacts with RPH3A and RAB3A (PubMed:15207266). Interacts with SERF1A; this interaction promotes the aggregation of SNCA (PubMed:22854022, PubMed:31034892). UniProt
Domain
The 'non A-beta component of Alzheimer disease amyloid plaque' domain (NAC domain) is involved in fibrils formation. The middle hydrophobic region forms the core of the filaments. The C-terminus may regulate aggregation and determine the diameter of the filaments. UniProt
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Data in green originates from UniProtKB  
Variation data (sourced from UniProt) shows non-genetic variation from the ExPASy   and dbSNP   websites.
Data in yellow originates from Pfam  , by interacting with the HMMER3 web site  
Data in purple originates from Phosphosite  .
Data in orange originates from the SCOP   (version 1.75) and SCOPe   (version 2.04) classifications.
Data in grey has been calculated using BioJava  . Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN  
  • Red: potentially disorderd region
  • Blue: probably ordered region.
Hydropathy has been calculated using a sliding window of 15 residues and summing up scores from standard hydrophobicity tables.
  • Red: hydrophobic
  • Blue: hydrophilic.
Data in lilac represent the genomic exon structure projected onto the UniProt sequence.
Data in blue originates from PDB
  • Secstruc: Secondary structure projected from representative PDB entries onto the UniProt sequence.
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Validation Track

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Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from the SWISS-MODEL Repository  
The PDB to UniProt mapping is based on the data provided by the EBI SIFTS project. See also Velankar et al., Nucleic Acids Research 33, D262-265 (2005).
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