Alpha-hemolysin - P09616 (HLA_STAAU)


Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence  

Alpha-toxin binds to the membrane of eukaryotic cells (particularly red blood cells, RBC) forming pores, resulting in hemolysis, with the release of low-molecular weight molecules leading to eventual osmotic RBC lysis (PubMed:1587866, PubMed:20624979). Human RBCs bind much less alpha-toxin than do rabbit RBCs (PubMed:1587866, PubMed:20624979). Heptamer oligomerization and pore formation is required for lytic activity (PubMed:1587866, PubMed:20624979). UniProt
Pathway Maps
      ESCHER  BiGG
Subunit Structure
Self-assembles to first form a non-lytic oligomeric intermediate, and then, a mushroom-shaped homoheptamer structure of 100 Angstroms in length and up to 100 Angstroms in diameter (PubMed:8943190) (Probable). Interacts with human ADAM10; this interaction is required for toxin pore formation, disruption of focal adhesions, and hly-mediated cytotoxicity (PubMed:20624979). UniProt
The mushroom-shaped heptamer is composed of a cap domain (comprising 7 beta sandwiches and the amino latches of each protomer), 7 rim regions whose protruding strands may interact with the membrane bilayer, and the stem domain (52 Angstroms in length, 26 Angstroms in diameter) which forms the transmembrane pore. UniProt
  • Other Gene names: hly, hla
This protein in other organisms (by gene name):
The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more information.
Data origin/color codes
The vertical color bar on the left side indicates data provenance.
Data in green originates from UniProtKB  
Variation data (sourced from UniProt) shows non-genetic variation from the ExPASy   and dbSNP   websites.
Data in yellow originates from Pfam  , by interacting with the HMMER3 web site  
Data in purple originates from Phosphosite  .
Data in orange originates from the SCOP   (version 1.75) and SCOPe   (version 2.04) classifications.
Data in grey has been calculated using BioJava  . Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN  
  • Red: potentially disorderd region
  • Blue: probably ordered region.
Hydropathy has been calculated using a sliding window of 15 residues and summing up scores from standard hydrophobicity tables.
  • Red: hydrophobic
  • Blue: hydrophilic.
Data in lilac represent the genomic exon structure projected onto the UniProt sequence.
Data in blue originates from PDB
  • Secstruc: Secondary structure projected from representative PDB entries onto the UniProt sequence.
Sequence Mismatches It is now possible to see information about expression tags, cloning artifacts, and many other details related to sequence mismatches.
Icons represent a number of different sequence modifications that can be observed in PDB files. For example the 'T' icon T represents expression tags that have been added to the sequence. The 'E' icon E represents an engineered mutation. However, besides these two, there are many other icons. For more information about the meaning and exact position of a sequence modification, move the cursor over the icon.
Validation Track

For more details on the Validation Track (Structure Summary Page only) see the dedicated help page.

Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from the SWISS-MODEL Repository  
The PDB to UniProt mapping is based on the data provided by the EBI SIFTS project. See also Velankar et al., Nucleic Acids Research 33, D262-265 (2005).
Organism icons generated by under CC BY. The authors are: Freepik, Icons8, OCHA, Scott de Jonge.

For more details on the Protein Feature view see the dedicated help page.