4LY9

Human GKRP complexed to AMG-1694 [(2R)-1,1,1-trifluoro-2-{4-[(2S)-2-{[(3S)-3-methylmorpholin-4-yl]methyl}-4-(thiophen-2-ylsulfonyl)piperazin-1-yl]phenyl}propan-2-ol] and sorbitol-6-phosphate


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.35 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.270 
  • R-Value Work: 0.214 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.217 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history


Literature

Antidiabetic effects of glucokinase regulatory protein small-molecule disruptors.

Lloyd, D.J.St Jean, D.J.Kurzeja, R.J.Wahl, R.C.Michelsen, K.Cupples, R.Chen, M.Wu, J.Sivits, G.Helmering, J.Komorowski, R.Ashton, K.S.Pennington, L.D.Fotsch, C.Vazir, M.Chen, K.Chmait, S.Zhang, J.Liu, L.Norman, M.H.Andrews, K.L.Bartberger, M.D.Van, G.Galbreath, E.J.Vonderfecht, S.L.Wang, M.Jordan, S.R.Veniant, M.M.Hale, C.

(2013) Nature 504: 437-440

  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12724
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    4LY9

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Glucose homeostasis is a vital and complex process, and its disruption can cause hyperglycaemia and type II diabetes mellitus. Glucokinase (GK), a key enzyme that regulates glucose homeostasis, converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate in pancreatic β-cells, liver hepatocytes, specific hypothalamic neurons, and gut enterocytes ...

    Glucose homeostasis is a vital and complex process, and its disruption can cause hyperglycaemia and type II diabetes mellitus. Glucokinase (GK), a key enzyme that regulates glucose homeostasis, converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate in pancreatic β-cells, liver hepatocytes, specific hypothalamic neurons, and gut enterocytes. In hepatocytes, GK regulates glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suppresses glucose production, and is subject to the endogenous inhibitor GK regulatory protein (GKRP). During fasting, GKRP binds, inactivates and sequesters GK in the nucleus, which removes GK from the gluconeogenic process and prevents a futile cycle of glucose phosphorylation. Compounds that directly hyperactivate GK (GK activators) lower blood glucose levels and are being evaluated clinically as potential therapeutics for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. However, initial reports indicate that an increased risk of hypoglycaemia is associated with some GK activators. To mitigate the risk of hypoglycaemia, we sought to increase GK activity by blocking GKRP. Here we describe the identification of two potent small-molecule GK-GKRP disruptors (AMG-1694 and AMG-3969) that normalized blood glucose levels in several rodent models of diabetes. These compounds potently reversed the inhibitory effect of GKRP on GK activity and promoted GK translocation both in vitro (isolated hepatocytes) and in vivo (liver). A co-crystal structure of full-length human GKRP in complex with AMG-1694 revealed a previously unknown binding pocket in GKRP distinct from that of the phosphofructose-binding site. Furthermore, with AMG-1694 and AMG-3969 (but not GK activators), blood glucose lowering was restricted to diabetic and not normoglycaemic animals. These findings exploit a new cellular mechanism for lowering blood glucose levels with reduced potential for hypoglycaemic risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Metabolic Disorders, Amgen Inc., One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA.



Macromolecules
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Glucokinase regulatory protein AB637Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: GCKR
Find proteins for Q14397 (Homo sapiens)
Explore Q14397 
Go to UniProtKB:  Q14397
NIH Common Fund Data Resources
PHAROS:  Q14397
Protein Feature View
Expand
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 5 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
1YY
Query on 1YY

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
A, B
(2R)-1,1,1-trifluoro-2-{4-[(2S)-2-{[(3S)-3-methylmorpholin-4-yl]methyl}-4-(thiophen-2-ylsulfonyl)piperazin-1-yl]phenyl}propan-2-ol
C23 H30 F3 N3 O4 S2
OJTJLEFGCNYTBQ-RBDMOPTHSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
S6P
Query on S6P

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
A, B
D-SORBITOL-6-PHOSPHATE
C6 H15 O9 P
GACTWZZMVMUKNG-SLPGGIOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
IOD
Query on IOD

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
A, B
IODIDE ION
I
XMBWDFGMSWQBCA-UHFFFAOYSA-M
 Ligand Interaction
SO4
Query on SO4

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
B
SULFATE ION
O4 S
QAOWNCQODCNURD-UHFFFAOYSA-L
 Ligand Interaction
GOL
Query on GOL

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
A, B
GLYCEROL
C3 H8 O3
PEDCQBHIVMGVHV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
External Ligand Annotations 
IDBinding Affinity (Sequence Identity %)
1YYKd :  7   nM  PDBBind
1YYIC50:  21   nM  BindingDB
1YYEC50:  82   nM  BindingDB
1YYKd:  7   nM  Binding MOAD
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.35 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.270 
  • R-Value Work: 0.214 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.217 
  • Space Group: P 65
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 148.869α = 90
b = 148.869β = 90
c = 132.397γ = 120
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
HKL-2000data collection
AMoREphasing
REFMACrefinement
HKL-2000data reduction
HKL-2000data scaling

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report



Entry History 

Deposition Data

  • Deposited Date: 2013-07-30 
  • Released Date: 2013-11-20 
  • Deposition Author(s): Jordan, S.R.

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2013-11-20
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2014-01-15
    Changes: Database references