Eukaryotic cytosolic and mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the charging of tRNA with the meta-tyrosineKlipcan, L., Moor, N., Kessler, N., Safro, M.G.
(2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106: 11045-11048
- PubMed: 19549855
- DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0905212106
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
The accumulation of proteins damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS), conventionally regarded as having pathological potentials, is associated with age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's, atherosclerosis, and cataractogenesis. Exposure of the aromatic ...
The accumulation of proteins damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS), conventionally regarded as having pathological potentials, is associated with age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's, atherosclerosis, and cataractogenesis. Exposure of the aromatic amino acid phenylalanine to ROS-generating systems produces multiple isomers of tyrosine: m-tyrosine (m-Tyr), o-tyrosine (o-Tyr), and the standard p-tyrosine (Tyr). Previously it was demonstrated that exogenously supplied, oxidized amino acids could be incorporated into bacterial and eukaryotic proteins. It is, therefore, likely that in many cases, in vivo-damaged amino acids are available for de novo synthesis of proteins. Although the involvement of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in this process has been hypothesized, the specific pathway by which ROS-damaged amino acids are incorporated into proteins remains unclear. We provide herein evidence that mitochondrial and cytoplasmic phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases (HsmtPheRS and HsctPheRS, respectively) catalyze direct attachment of m-Tyr to tRNA(Phe), thereby opening the way for delivery of the misacylated tRNA to the ribosome and incorporation of ROS-damaged amino acid into eukaryotic proteins. Crystal complexes of mitochondrial and bacterial PheRSs with m-Tyr reveal the net of highly specific interactions within the synthetic and editing sites.
Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel.